MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 91(3) May/Jun 1996
PAGES: 317-328 DOI: Full paper
Four New Species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) Parasitizing Amphibians and Lizards from Ecuador

Badreddine Ben Slimane, Marie-Claude Durette-Desset +

Laboratoire de Protozoologie et Parasitologie coniparée de l'E.P.H.E. & Laboratoire de Biologie Parasitaire, Protistologie, Helminthologie, associé au C.N.R.S., Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 61 Rue Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France

Abstract

Description of four new species of Oswaldocruzia parasitizing Iguanidae and Leptodactylidae from Ecuador, demonstrate that they are morphologically close to each other. Like most of the other neotropical and holarctic Oswaldocruzia , they are characterized by spicules with three main branches: blade, shoe and fork; the division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length appears to be characteristic of the neotropical species.

Oswaldocruzia bainae n. sp. parasitizing Anolis chrysolepis and Anolis fuscoauratus possesses a synlophe visible only on transversal sections of the body. It is composed of rounded and not pointed ridges.

- Oswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus is closely related to O. bainae , but the synlophe is present only in the anterior and posterior extremities of the body.

Oswaldocruzia cassonei n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus lanthanites is closely related to O. taranchoni, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Bufo marinus from Brazil. It is differentiated by the synlophe and the measurements.

Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp. parasitizing Leptodactylus pentadactylus is closely related to O. chambrieri, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1993, parasitizing Bufo and Eleutherodactylus in the same region. It is differentiated since, for an equivalent length of the body, the ridges are almost two times fewer and the spicules smaller.

In this study, we continue the review of the genus 0swaldocruzia Travassos, 1917, a cosmopolitan parasite of Amphibians and Reptiles. The diagnosis of the species relies on new morphological criteria, particularly the synlophe characteristics in oesophageal region, the relative arrangement of rays 6 and 8 of the caudal bursa and the acute spicular morphology.

Six species of Oswaldocruzia were described in Ecuador (cf Ben Slimane & Durette-Desset, 1993, 1995), but only from Amphibians. We describe below three new species in Amphibians and one in Reptiles.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The Nematodes were collected in the small intestine of Ecuadorian Leptodactylidae and Iguanidae (neotropical fauna, guyano-brazilian sub-zona).

The study of the synlophe is based on the Durette-Desset (1985) method; the nomenclature of the synlophe in oesophageal region follows Ben Slimane et al. (1993). More particularly, the cervical alae are defined as one or more latero-ventral ridges, more developed than the other ridges. The nomenclature of the caudal bursa follows Durette-Desset and Chabaud (1981), concerning the relative arrangement of rays 6 and 8 follows that of Durette-Desset et al. (1992). The spicules were studied after dissection and the nomenclature is that of Ben Slimane et al. (1993).

The material was stored in 70° ethanol and deposited in the Helminthological Collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris (MNHN) and in those of the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle of Genève (MHNG).

 

DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1 | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 | Fig. 4 | Fig. 5 | Fig. 6

The species are closely related to each other and to the other species previously studied in the same region. Some characters do not provide specific differences and can be defined similarly for all the species.

Head: cephalic vesicle present without anterior swelling. En face view: buccal aperture triangular, with 6 externo-labial papillae, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 amphids. Small dorsal oesophageal tooth present.

Anterior extremity: excretory pore situated within distal third of oesophagus. Triangular-shaped deirids, posterior to excretory pore. Well developed excretory glands. Musculo-glandular separation of oesophagus acutely visible at nerve ring level.

Caudal bursa: with 2-3 pattern which tends towards 2-1-2 i.e extremities of rays 4 directed towards anterior of body, nearer those of rays 3 than rays 5. Rays 2 and 3 joined along, rays 5 and 6 joined along. Rays 8 arising on root of dorsal ray and overlapped by rays 6 except in their distal extremity (type III). Rays 9 arising on dorsal ray before division of the latter into two branches of which internal ones are longest. Thick dorsal ray. Gubernaculum absent.

Genital cone: 15 mm high by 15 mm wide at its proximal part, bearing on anterior lip a large papilla "zero" and 2 min papillae 7 on posterior lip.

Spicules: divided proximally into three main branches: extemo-lateral branch or blade, interno-

dorsal branch or shoe, interno-ventrat branch or fork. Fork divided within distal third of spicule.

Female: didelphic with very short infundibula.

Oswaldocruzia bainae n. sp.

Type-material: holotype male, allotype female MHNG-INVE 19484; 1 male, 3 females paratypes MNHN 212 MD

Host: Anolis chrysolepis (Iguanidae)

Site: small intestine

Locality: San Pablo, Ecuador

Voucher specimens: from the same site and the same locality as the types

In 9 Anolis chrysolepis: 11 males , 5 L4 males, 16 females, 10 L4 females, MHNG-INVE 19485 to 19491. 7 male, 1 L4 male, 9 females, 1 entsheathed LA female, 2 L4 females MNHN 206 MD-207 MD. In 6 Anolis fuscoauratus: 12 males, 3 females: MHNG-INVE 19492-19497; 2 males , 4 females: MNHN 219 MD.

ADULTS

Small nematodes with anterior part of body coiled or not. Cervical alae absent.

Synlophe(studied in 1 male and 1 female paratypes, 1 male and 1 female from A. chrysolepis 2 males from A. fuscoauratus. Numbers in brackets correspond to voucher specimens).

In both sexes, cuticle bears longitudinal "pseudoridges" or undulations, uninterrupted whole length of body but obvious only in transversal sections (Fig. 1C). In male 65% (74 to 77%) of ridges appear in oesophageal region, within 67% (74 to 78%) of dorsal ridges and 63% (71 to 81%) of ventral ridges. In female 81% (71%) of ridges appear in oesophageal region within same dorsal and ventral ratio. Ridges disappear just anterior to caudal bursa in male and at phasmids level in female.

In male 27 (30, 34, 26) ridges at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 1C) and 40 (40, 44, 35) at mid-body (Fig. 1D). In female, 44 (34) ridges at oesophago-intestinal junction and 54 (48) at mid-body (Fig. 1E).

In transversal sections, rounded ridges are more or less regularly spaced.

Holotype-male: 7100 mm long and 130 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 75 mm long and 40 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 190 mm380 mm and 400 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 530 mm long.

Caudal bursa illustrated in Fig. 1K. Spicules 190 mm long, blade divided at its distal part into two small branches which are subdivided into numerous processes; fork distally divided at 17% of whole length of spicule (Fig. 1H-J).

Allotype-female: 12350 mm long and 190 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 90 mm long and 40 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 190 mm, 370 mm and 390 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 540 mm long (Fig. 1A).

Vulva 4150 mm from caudal extremity, vagina vera 50 mm dividing vestibule 380 mm long into two equivalent parts. Sphincters both 40 mm long and infundibula both 30 mm long (Fig.1F). Uterine branches both 2450 mm long with 70 eggs. All eggs at morula stage, 70 mm long and 50 mm wide. Tail 160 mm long and 70 mm wide at level of anus, with caudal spine 16 mm long (Fig. 1G).

ENTSHEATHED IMMATURE STAGES: (studied in 1 male and 1 female from A. chrysolepis).

Male: 3200 mm long and 90 mm wide at mid-body. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 170 mm, 310 mm and 330 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 390 mm long; beginning of formation of bursate rays (Fig. 2E).

Female: 4100 mm long and 90 mm wide at mid-body. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 150

mm, 250 mm and 250 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 370 mm long; tail 150 mm long and 40 mm wide at level of anus with caudal spine 18 mm long.

Synlophe: same shape as in adult (Fig. 2D).

4TH STAGE LARVA: (studied in 1 male and 1 female from Achrysolepis)

Head: cephalic vesicle absent (Fig. 2A).

Synlophe: in both sexes composed of two lateral alae holded by chitinous skeleton whole along the body (Fig. 2C).

Male: 3400 mm long and 80 mm wide at mid-body. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 175 mm, 300 mm and 320 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 390 mm long. Genital apparat 1450 mm long.

Female: 3250 mm long and 70 mm wide at mid-body. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids150 mm, 240 mm and 240 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 370 mm long (Fig. 2A). Genital apparat 610 mm long (Fig. 2G). Tail 110 mm long by 30 mm wide at anus level (Fig. 2F).

 

DISCUSSION

Fig. 1 | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 | Fig. 4 | Fig. 5 | Fig. 6

The specimens from Ecuadorian A. chrysolepis and A. fuscoauratus have no specific differentiation each other and belong to the genus Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917.

Among the numerous known species in the genus, those which present, as Ecuadorian specimens, spicules divided proximally into three main branches with a fork distally divided (within the distal third) seem characteristic of the neotropical zone.

The specimens described above possess: (1) a relative arrangement of the rays 6 and 8 of type III, i.e the rays 8 arise on root of the dorsal ray and are overlapped by the rays 6 except at their distal extremity; (2) a spicular blade distally divided into numerous processes; (3) a poor developed synlophe with undulations and not sharp ridges.

Only one other neotropical species has the same synlophe: 0. peruensis Ben Slimane et al. (1995), a parasite of Peruvian Stenocercus roseiventris. It differs from the Ecuadorian specimens by the relative arrangement of the rays 6 and 8 (type II) and by the presence of the cervical alae.

We consider the specimens from Anolis spp. as belonging to a new species 0swaldocruzia bainae n.sp., named after our colleague, Dr Odile Bain.

Oswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n.sp.

Type-material: holotype male, allotype female MHNG-INVE 19506, 1 L4 male, 5 female paratypes MNHN, 178 MD

Host: Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus (Leptodactylidae)

Site: small intestine

Locality: San Pablo, Ecuador

ADULTS

Small nematodes, with anterior part of body coiled. Cervical alae absent.

Synlophe: (studied in the holotype and 1 paratype female). In both sexes, absence of synlophe except in anterior and posterior extremities of body where ridges longitudinal. According to sex and level of body, ridges are rounded (undulations) or pointed.

In anterior extremity, ridges appear behind cephalic vesicle. In male, dorsal ridges disappear at about 640 mm from apex and ventral ones at about 700 mm. In female (7000 mm long), dorsal ridges disappear at about 1200 mm from apex (i.e three times length of oesophagus) and ventral ones at about 2400 mm (i.e a third of whole length). In posterior extremity, dorsal ridges of male (3650 mm long) visible at about 1400 mm from caudal bursa in transversal section of body but in toto, only at approximatively 450 mm; ventral ridges visible at about 250 mm. In female, ventral ridges appear at ovejector level and dorsal ones at anus level.

In male, 16 dorsal ridges at 1400 mm to caudal bursa (Fig. 3I). In female, 26 ridges (13dorsal, 13 ventral) at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 3B), 13 ventral ridges at ovejector level (Fig. 3G) and 21 ridges at anus level (Fig. 3H).

In transversal section, pointed ridges are orientated perpendicularly to body surface. Undulations and ridges are both with same size and irregularly spaced.

Holotype-male: 3650 mm long and 70 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 50 mm long and 30 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 140 mm, 230 mm and 250 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 370 mm long.

Caudal bursa illustrated in Fig. 4H. Spicules not dissected, 130 mm long. Blade divided at its distal part into two small branches. Subdivision of small branches not seen. Fork distally divided at 28% of whole length of spicule.

Allotype-female7350 mm long and 100 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 50 mm long and 30 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 150 mm280 mm and 300mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 400 mm long (Fig. 4A).

Vulva 2600 mm from caudal extremity. Vagina vera 30mm long dividing vestibule 180 mm long

into two parts, posterior one being slightly shorter. Sphincters both 30 mm long and infundibula both 25 mm long (Fig. 4D). Anterior uterine branch 1800 mm long with 31 eggs, posterior uterine branch 1700 mm long with 28 eggs. All eggs at morula stage 70 mm long and 40 mm wide. Tail 140 mm long and 50 mm wide at level of anus, with caudal spine 15 mm long (Fig. 4C).

4TH STAGE LARVA MALE: 2000 mm long and 50 mm wide at mid-body. Head without cephalic vesicle. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 110 mm, 180 mm and 190 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 360 mm longSynlophe composed of two lateral ridges orientated perpendicularly to body surface and supported by a chitinous skeleton (Fig. 4K).

Discussion

With a synlophe mainly composed of rounded and not pointed ridges, the species can be related to O. peruensis Ben Slimane et al. (1995) parasite of Sternocercus roseiventris in Peru and O. bainae n.sp. parasite of Anolis spp. It is closely related to the latter since the specimens described above, have an arrangement of rays 6 and 8 of type III and no cervical alae as O. bainae.

But the specimens of Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus can be distinguished from all the neotropical species by its very particular synlophe lacking ridges in the median part of the body.

We therefore consider the specimens from Eleutherodactilus altamazonicus as belonging to a new speciesOswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n.sp. named after our colleague Roselyne Tcheprakoff.

Oswaldocruzia cassonei n.sp.

Type-material: holotype male, allotype female MHNG-INVE 19477, 4 males, 1 female MNHN,

169 MD

Host:Eleutherodactylus lanthanites (Leptodac-tylidae)

Site: small intestine

Locality: San Pablo, Ecuador

Voucher specimens: from the same site and the same locality, as the types

In 5 E. lanthanites: 3 males , 3 females MHNG-INVE 19478-79, 3 males MNHN 170 MD- 172 MD. In 2 E. conspicillalus:4 males MHNG- INVE 19480-81, 3 males MNHN 174 MD. In 1 E. diadematus: 1female MHNG-INVE 19482. In 1 E.altamazonicus: 1 male MHNG-INVE 19483.

ADULTS

Small nematodes, curved on ventral line. Cervical alae absent.

Synlophe: (studied in 2 male and 1 female paratypes, 2 males, parasites of E. lanthanites and

1 male, parasite of E. conspicillatus. Numbers in brackets correspond to voucher specimens).

In both sexes, cuticle bears uninterrupted longitudinal ridges. In male, 85-93% of ridges appear in oesophageal region within 79-100% of dorsal ridges and 87-100% of ventral ridges. In female 86% of rides appear in oesophageal region within same dorsal and ventral ratio. Ridges disappear just anterior to caudal bursa in male and at phamids level in female.

In male, 29, 31 (28, 28, 26) ridges at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 5C) and 32, 35 (30, 33,34) ridges at mid-body (Fig. 5E). In female, 36 ridges oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 5D) and 42 ridges at mid-body (Fig. 5F).

In transversal section, ridges same size, orientated perpendicularly to body surface with regular spacing.

Holotype male: 4200 mm long and 100 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 50 mm long and 30 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 130 mm, 210 mm and 230 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 380 mm long (Fig. 5A).

Caudal bursa illustrated in Fig. 6M. Spicules 125 mm long. Blade with spatulate extremity, fork distally divided at 23% of whole length of spicule (Fig. 5 H, I, J).

Allotype-female: 9200 mm long and 130 mm wide at mid-body. Cephalic vesicle 65 mm long and 35 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 160 mm270 mm and 290 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 480 mm long.

Vulva 2850 mm from caudal extermity. Vagina vera 30 mm long dividing vestibule 220 mm long

into two equivalent parts. Sphincters both 30 mm and infundibula both 20 mm long (Fig. 5G). Anterior uterine branch 1900 mm long with 38 eggs, posterior uterine branch 1800 mm long with 26 eggs. All eggs at morula stage, 70 mm long and 50 mm wide. Tail 120 mm long and 50 mm wide at level of anus with caudal spine 15 mm long (Fig. 5K).

Discussion

In the neotropical region, the sole species closely related to the specimens described above is Oswaldocruzia taranchoniBen Slimane and Durette-Desset (1995) a parasite of Bufo marinus from Pernambuco, Brazil which has both the caudal bursa of type III and the spicular blade with spatulate extremity. Unlike the specimens described above, in Otaranchoni,the sexual dimorphism concerning the size is slighter (male 6.4-5 mm, female 7.35 mm), the ridges are more numerous (53-75 at mid-body in females) and not pronounced, and the division of the spicular fork is deeper. We consider the specimens from Eleutherodactylus as belonging to a new species Oswaldocruzia cassonei n. sp named after our colleague Jimmy Cassone.

Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp.

Type material: holotype male, allotype female MHNG-INVE 19500, 1 male, 1 female paratypes MNHN 153 MD

Host:Leptodactylus pentadacylus (Leptodac-tylidae)

Site: small intestine

Locality: San Pablo, Ecuador

Voucher material: from the same site and the same locality as the types

In 9 L. pentadactylus: 6 males, 5 females, 1 L4 female, MHNG-INVE 19501-505; 3 males, 3 females, MNHN 148 MD, 149 MD, 154 MD, 155 MD.

ADULTS

Small nematodes, with anterior part of body coiled. Cervical alae absent.

Synlophe: (studied in the male and the female paratypes; in 2 males and 2 females from voucher

material. Numbers in brackets correspond to voucher specimens).

In both sexes, cuticle bears longitudinal ridges over whole length of body. In male 82-100% of ridges appear in oesophageal region within 87-100% of dorsal ridges and 77-100% of ventral ridges. In female 90% of ridges appear in oesophageal region within same dorsal and ventral ratio. Ridges disappear just anterior to caudal bursa in male and at phasmids level in female.

In male, 23 (26, 27) ridges at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 6C) and 28 (26, 30) at mid-body (Fig. 6E). In female, 34 (33, 31) ridges at oesophago-intestinal junction (Fig. 6D), and 38 (41, 38) at mid-body (Fig. 6F).

In transversal section, ridges are orientated perpendicularly to body surface, same size and regularly spaced except in oesophageal region where the ridges in front of lateral fields are more spaced.

Holotype-male: 5000 mm long and 90 mm wide at mid-body; cephalic vesicle 65 mm long and 40 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 190 mm, 330 mm and 350 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 470 mm long (Fig. 6A).

Caudal bursa illustrated in Fig. 6 L. Spicules 140 mm long; blade distally divided into 6 processes, fork distally divided at 21% of whole length of spicule (Fig. 6 I, J, K).

Allotype-female: 9000 mm long and 120 mm wide at mid-body; cephalic vesicle 80 mm long and 35 mm wide. Nerve ring, excretory pore and deirids 200 mm350 mm and 370 mm from apex, respectively. Oesophagus 510 mm long

Vulva 3100 mm from caudal extremity. Vagina vera 35 mm long dividing vestibule 240 mm long into two equivalent parts. Sphincters both 25 mm long and infundibula both 25 mm long (Fig. 6G). Anterior uterine branch 2200 mm long with 55 eggs, posterior uterine branch 2200 mm long with 52 eggs. All eggs at morula stage 70 mm long and 50 mm wide. Tail 180 mm long and 65 mm wide at level of anus, with caudal spine 15 mm long (Fig. 6H).

Discussion

The specimens from Leptodactylus are mainly characterized by (1) a cephalic vesicle without proximal swelling; (2) a synlophe with numerous ridges regularly spaced; (3) the absence of the cervical alae; (4) a caudal bursa of type III and (5) the spicular blades divided into numerous processes at their distal extremities. The only species sharing the same characters is Oswaldocruzia chambrieri Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset (1993), a parasite of Bufo andEleutherodactylus from the same region as the specimens studied above.

The extra-branches present on the spicular shoes of O. chambrieri are not observed in any of the Leptodactylusspecimens. Therefore, this character is not constant within the same species and cannot be used as a specific character. Only two differences indicate a speciation: the number of ridges at mid-body level and the length of the spicules both in relation to the size of the specimen. In a female of O. chambrieri, 9 mm long, the number of ridges is 38 and the length of the spicules is 140 mm. In a 6.4 mm long female parasiteof Leptodactylus, the number of ridges is 54 and the length of the spicules is 190 mm.

We therefore consider the specimens from Leptodactylus, belonging to a new species Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp. named after our colleague Dr Annie Petter.

 

REFERÊNCIAS

Ben Slimane B-Durette Desset MC 1993. Quatro novas espécies do gênero Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917 (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) parasitas anfíbios Equador. Rev Suisse Zool 100: 113-136.

Ben Slimane B-Durette Desset MC 1995. Identificação de Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) e O. mazzaiTravassos, 1935 e descrição de duas novas Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molincoidea) parasitas de neotropical Bufonidae. Rev Suisse Zool 102: 635-653.

Ben Slimane B-Durette Desset MC, Chabaud AG 1993 Oswaldocruzia (Trichostrongyloidea) parasitas Colecções do Amphibian museu em Paris. Ann Hum Comp Parasit 68 : 88-100.

Ben Slimane B, Verhaagh M Durette Desset MC-1995. 0swaldocruzia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasita de Iguanidae do Peru. Touro Natl Hist Nat Mus Paris 4 Sor 17 : 77-82.

Durette-Desset MC 1985. Trichostrongyloid nematóides e os hospedeiros vertebrados: Reconstrução da filogenia de um grupo de parasitas. Adv Parasitol 24: 239-306.

Durette-Desset MC, Chabaud AG 1981. novo teste de classificação nematóides Trichostrongy-loidea. Ann hum comp Paras 56: 297-312.

Durette-Desset MC, Nasher AK, Ben Slimane B 1992. 0swaldocruzia arabica n.sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea) parasita de Bufonidae Península Arábica e comentários sobre as espécies relacionadas. Touro Natl Hist Nat Mus Paris 4 Sor 14:693-703. 

+Corresponding author. Fax: 33-1-40 7934 99. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Received 24 November 1995
Accepted 23 January 1996

CONTACT US

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Av. Brasil 4365, Castelo Mourisco
sala 201, Manguinhos, 21040-900
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Tel.: +55-21-2562-1222

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

twitterfacebook

SUPPORT PROGRAM

marca fiocruzmarca brasil
marca faperjmarca cnpqmarca capes n marca cope

and diabetes. Erection dysfunction or ED is certainly one of mens most usual problem. It changes buy tadalafil 60mg A common drug is actually an imitation of its manufacturer twin. Both ought to be same in female cialis 20mg Long Phrase Viagra Use Fundamentally Damages Sex Lives This discount cialis canada Equally so, theres something to be said for the wonder of the second, captured forever on picture or a buy cheap cialis People extremely annoyed that they could only get three weeks at a time, Bunker noted. Retired persons cheap pharmacy These types of matters are possibly to being identified as having a result of cancer buy cialis 40mg - Yoghourt - fat-free simply Physical causes: Buying generic medicines now has been cheap generic cialis Herbaceous plants like nigrum and tribulus are well-known for his or her qualities in defeating impotence, which tadalafil 10mg It is not hard to consider Cialis that is generic. Most men start with one-10 mg dosage each purchase cialis Tadalafil quickly gained the moniker of weekender in Paris due to the fabulous results. The bash freaks buy female cialis