MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, Vol. 112 | 2017
PAGES: DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760170175 Full paper
Anophelines species and the receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission in the Pantanal wetlands, Central Brazil

Mariana Marinho-e-Silva1, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2, Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas1+, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira1, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento1

1Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
2Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

Abstract

BACKGROUND Studies on malaria vectors in the Pantanal biome, Central Brazil, were conducted more than half a century ago.

OBJECTIVES To update anopheline records and assess receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission.

METHODS Five-day anopheline collections were conducted bimonthly in Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul state, for one year. Indoors, mosquitoes were collected from their resting places, while in open fields, they were captured using protected human-baited and horse-baited traps near the house and at the Miranda River margin, respectively. Hourly biting activity outdoors was also assessed. Secondary data were collected on the arrival of tourists, economic projects, and malaria cases.

FINDINGS A total of 24,894 anophelines belonging to 13 species were caught. The main Brazilian malaria vector Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species, followed by An. triannulatus s.l. Hourly variation in anopheline biting showed three main peaks occurring at sunset, around midnight, and at sunrise, the first and last being the most prominent. The highest density of all species was recorded near the river margin and during the transition period between the rainy and early dry seasons. This coincides with the time of main influx of outsider workers and tourists, whose activities mostly occur in the open fields and frequently start before sunrise and last until sunset. Some of these individuals originate from neighbouring malaria-endemic countries and states, and are likely responsible for the recorded imported and introduced malaria cases.

MAIN CONCLUSION Pantanal is a malaria-prone area in Brazil. Surveillance and anopheline control measures must be applied to avoid malaria re-emergence in the region.

Financial support: FIOCRUZ, CNPq
+ Corresponding author: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Received 2 May 2017
Accepted 12 August 2017

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