Print this page

MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 101(2) March 2006
PAGES: 141-142 DOI: S0074-02762006000200004 Full paper
Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) brazilorum sp. nov. a new fossil species from the Dominican Republic (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

José Dilermando Andrade FilhoI,1; Eunice A Bianchi GalatiII; Alda Lima FalcãoI

ILaboratório de Leishmanioses, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Av. Augusto de Lima 1715, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
IIDepartamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

688 DOWNLOADS 1727 VIEWS
Abstract

A sand fly fossil was found in amber, a vegetal resin, which allows all the external phlebotomine structures to be seen. The piece that contains the new species is 14 mm long ´ 8 mm wide ´ 3 mm high. All the structures from the head, thorax, and abdomen were examined under the microscope and measured with a calibrated micrometric eye-piece. The morphological aspects of the new species suggest its inclusion in the Pintomyia genus, Pifanomyia subgenus though it is not possible to include it in any of the series known for this subgenus. The presence of two atrophied spines on the gonostyles and gonocoxites without tufts of setae permit the exclusion of the new species from the other species of the subgenus Pifanomyia. The new species is named Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) brazilorum sp. nov.

key words:

The fossil record of sand flies strongly support that living genera existed long before the Oligocene (Andrade Filho & Brazil 2003). Sand fly fossils are found in amber, a vegetal resin, which allows all the external phlebotomine structures to be seen. There are a few records of sand flies in amber and so far, three fossil species of the Phlebotominae subfamily have been described for the Americas (Quate 1963, Brazil & Andrade Filho 2002, Andrade Filho et al. 2004).

The amber from the Dominican Republic is to be dated in the Miocene period, of 15-20 million years ago (Iturralde-Vinent & MacPhee 1996) and the piece that contains the specimen of the new species is 14 mm long x 8 mm wide x 3 mm high. All the structures of the head, thorax, and abdomen were examined under microscope and measured with a calibrated micrometric eye-piece. Measurements are given in micrometers. It was only possible to obtain measurements of a few of the structures.

The classification utilized is that proposed by Galati (2003). The new species is named Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) brazilorum sp. nov., in honour of Beatriz and Reginaldo Brazil, for their contribution to research on phlebotomine sand flies.

Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) brazilorum sp. nov.

Holotype (Figs 1 and 2)

 

 

 

 

Head: laid on its side, hindering measurement of the head. Palpomeres measuring: 1st - 24, 2nd - 106, 3rd - 130, 4th - 98, 5th - 300. The 5th palpomere is longer than the sum of 2nd + 3rd or 3rd + 4th. Antennomeres: AXV longer than AXVI. Ascoid simple, short, reaching the middle of the flagellomere, without any posterior spur. Newstead's spines and papillae not visible.

Thorax: proepimeral and anepisternal bristles were not to be observed. Wing: width measuring 333 and R5 966; it was impossible to obtain any other measurements. Legs without special characters. Anterior: femur 588, tibia 611, tarsomere I 377; tarsomeres II+III+IV+V 511. Posterior: it was impossible to measure the femur because it was deformed, tibia 888, tarsomere I 544. Tarsomeres II+III+IV+V 644.

Abdomen: gonostyles present four spines, two of them being thick: one of them terminal and the superior external one implanted in the apical third, the other two are atrophied: the inferior external one in the middle of the structure and the internal one in its basal third. Gonocoxites without tufts of setae. Parameres present small apical extension their ventral margins. The lateral lobes do not present any special structures and their length was impossible to measure, due to their position.

Type material: holotype, Dominican Republic, north Santiago, specimen in amber from the mid-Miocene period, deposited in the phlebotomine sand fly collection of the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

 

REMARKS

The observable structures allow the inclusion of this new species in the genus Pintomyia Lima 1932, which is consists of two subgenera: Pintomyia s. str. and, Pifanomyia Ortiz & Scorza, 1963. Due to the absence of spines on the posterior femur, this new taxon has been identified as belonging to Pifanomyia. However, it is not possible to include it in any of the series known for this subgenus: monticola, pacae, pia, evansi,verrucarum, serrana or townsendi.

The presence of two atrophied spines on the gonostyles excludes the new species from that of the pacae, monticola, pia, verrucarum, evansi or townsendi series, as also from the serrana series, because the species of this latter series present basal tuft of setae on the gonocoxites. Further, in the serrana series, although the internal spine of the gonostyle is atrophied, the inferior external spine is absent. The atrophied spine also separated the new species from Pintomyia falcaorum Brazil & Andrade Filho, 2002, another fossil described from Dominican amber (Brazil & Andrade Filho 2002).

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To Deborah Aparecida Alves de Carvalho for her help with the figure of the sand fly.

 

REFERENCES

Andrade Filho JD, Brazil RP 2003. Relationships of new word phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on fossil evidence. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1): 145-149.

Andrade Filho JD, Falcão AL, Brazil RP 2004. A new phlebotomine fossil species Trichopygomyia killickorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae), found in the Dominican Republic amber. Parasite 11: 71-73.

Brazil RP, Andrade Filho JD 2002. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a fossil sand fly from Dominican amber. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 501-503.

Galati EAB 2003. Classificação de Phlebotominae. In EF Rangel, R Lainson R (eds), Flebotomíneos do Brasil, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, p. 23-51.

Iturralde Vinent MA, MacPhee RDE 1996. Age and paleogeographical origin of Dominican amber. Science 273: 1850-1852.

Quate LW 1963. Fossil Psychodidae in Mexican amber, Part 2 Diptera: Insecta. J Paleontol 37: 110-118.

Received 29 August 2005
Accepted 15 March 2006
Financial support: Capes, Fiocruz

1 Corresponding author: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.