MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 97(2) March 2002
PAGES: 239-245 DOI: Full paper
Descriptions of Lutzomyia (Evandromyiageorgii n. sp. and a Synopsis of the Series infraspinosa (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Rui A Freitas, Toby V Barrett +

Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ciências da Saúde, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Caixa Postal 478, 69011-970 Manaus, AM, Brasil

Abstract

Lutzomyia georgii n. sp. and the female of L. tarapacaensis in the Series infraspinosa of the subgenus Evandromyia are described, from specimens collected in rainforest in the north of the State of Pará, Brazil. The new species was taken together with five other Evandromyia species including L. infraspinosa (sensu strictu) in the same locality. L. georgii has previously been confused with both L. begonae and L. infraspinosa, whereas L. tarapacaensis would run to L. infraspinosa in recent taxonomic keys. The fact that both L. georgii and L. tarapacaensis are locally sympatric with L. infraspinosa helps to clarify the taxonomic limits of the latter species. New keys to the subgenus Evandromyia are provided.

The subgenus Evandromyia Mangabeira was reviewed by Young and Arias (1977) who separated the species into two groups, the Series infraspinosa for seven species with simple aedeagi and dorsal spatulate setae at the tips of the surstyles, and the Seriesmonstruosa for two species with aedeagi with long ventral extensions and surstyles lacking spatulate setae. These authors illustrated male and female specimens of a taxon in the Series infraspinosa collected in Manaus, north of the Amazon River, which they classified as Lutzomyia begonae (Ortiz and Torres) known at that time only from the description of the male holotype from Venezuelan Amazonas. While recognizing that the males from Manaus differed from the description of the holotype of L. begonae, these differences were provisionally attributed to geographical variation within a single species. Young and Duncan (1994) maintained the previous classification of Evandromyia, except that L. begonaesensu Young and Arias 1977, was transferred to L. infraspinosa (Mangabeira), the type species of the subgenus. This decision was based on information that L. begonae and the form described as L. begonae from Manaus had been taken together at the same locality in southern Venezuela, indicating that they are not conspecific. Young and Duncan (1994) treated L. infraspinosa as a geographically variable species including forms with an acute ventral process on the lower arm of each paramere, from Manaus (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia) (their Fig. 124 G), and the typical form in which this process is absent (their Figs 124 E, H). In the same year (Fernandez et al. 1994) an additional species belonging to the Series infraspinosaL. sipani, was described from males collected in Loreto Department, northeast Peru. Barrett et al. (1996) illustrated the male terminalia of yet another form which in the key of Young and Duncan (1994, p. 303) runs to L. infraspinosa, and which they considered to be a distinct species, without formally naming it. In the same year, LePont et al. (1996) described and named a single, badly damaged, male specimen from the Bolivian Amazon Region, as L. (Evandromyiatarapacaensis, noting the similarity of the new species to Fig. 4 of Barrett et al. (1996). The recently described L. aldafalcaoae Santos, Andrade Filho and Honer 2001, based on three male specimens from the Brazilian Pantanal, also belongs to the infraspinosa Series according to the criteria of Young and Arias (1997), although the spatulate setae of the surstyle appear to be shorter and more numerous than in other species of the Series (Santos et al. 2001).

We have now taken six distinct taxa of the subgenus Evandromyia together in the same locality in the north of the State of Pará, including L. monstruosa (Floch and Abonnenc), L. inpai Young and Arias, L. bourrouli (Barretto and Coutinho), L. infraspinosa(sensu strictu), L. tarapacaensis and the species here described as new. The new species is identified with the material from Manaus classified as L. begonae by Young and Arias (1977), and L. tarapacaensis is identified with L. (Evandromyia) sp. of Barrett et al. (1996, Fig. 4). We have compared this material with a specimen of L. begonae (sensu strictu) from Serra Pacaraima, Roraima, Brazil that agrees with the description of the holotype designated by Ortiz and Torres (1975). By choosing the type locality for the new species, where it occurs together with L. infraspinosa and L. tarapacaensis, we hope to establish that these are valid taxa rather than geographical variants of a broadly defined L. infraspinosa (or of Lbegonae, or of each other). The purpose of the present communication is to aid in the identification of L. (Evandromyia) males and females, and to make available a new name for use in faunistic studies in progress.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Additional information on the type locality Serra do Cachorro is given in Freitas and Barrett (1999) and Quate and Alexander (2000). Measurements are mean values in mm with range in parentheses for specimens cleared in NaOH and phenol and slide mounted in Canada balsam. A male specimen of L. begonae (sensu strictu) used for comparison is from Brazil, Roraima, Serra Pacaraima, marco BV _ 8 near the frontier with Venezuela (approx. 4o30'N, 61o8'W), CDC light trap at 1 m, 26/6/1988 (Nelson Fé, col.). Character states of the female of L. begonae used in the key are derived from Feliciangeli et al. (1988). The holotype of L. tarapacaensis is in Montpellier, France (Le Pont et al. 1996) and, due to current Brazilian restrictions on the exchange of biological material, we did not request to examine it.

 

TAXONOMIC DESCRIPTIONS

Lutzomyia georgii, n. sp. (Figs 35-14)

L. begonae, in part: Young and Arias (1977, Figs 2A, B, C, D and 2F, G, H, I); Ryan (1986, Fig. 18); not Ortiz and Torres.

L. infraspinosa,in part: Young and Duncan (1994, Fig. 124 G); not Mangabeira.

Male: small for the subgenus Evandromyia, 1.76 (1.74- 1.77) long; colouration medium brown throughout, including mesonotum, coxae and pleura. Head (Fig. 5) height from vertex to tip of clypeus 0.29 (0.28-0.30), width 0.26 (0.25-0.26). Eyes separated by 0.11 (0.10-0.11), equivalent to 7.1 facet diameters; interocular suture incomplete. Cibarium with a row of 6-8 vestigial horizontal teeth; arch complete; pigment patch weakly marked, narrow and tapering. Pharynx unarmed, 0.12 (0.12-0.13) long. Flagellomere I 0.17 (0.16-0.18) long; II + III 0.19 (0.19-0.20). Paired ascoids present on flagellomeres I-XIII, simple, long, generally surpassing the apex of the flagellomere (Fig. 9). Labrum 0.16 (0.15-0.17) long. Maxillary palps 0.54 (0.51-0.56) long, length of palpomeres: 1, 0.03 (0.02-0.03); 2, 0.09; 3, 0.12 (0.11-0.12); 4, 0.08 (0.07 _ 0.08); 5, 0.23 (0.21-0.24); P2 > P4. Thorax (0.37-0.38) long. Wing (Fig. 8) length 1.36 (1.34- 1.38), maximum width 0.38 (0.37-0.41). Length of wing vein sections: alpha 0.30 (0.27-0.33), beta 0.15 (0.14-0.17), gamma 0.20 (0.19-0.22), delta 0.04 (0.02-0.05). Pleura with 17 (16-21) upper and 2 lower episternal setae. Length of femora, tibiae and basitarsi: foreleg 0.61 (0.59-0.62), 0.57 (0.55- 0.58), 0.33; midleg 0.61, 0.72, 0.40; hindlegs missing in available specimens from type locality. Abdomen 1.38 (1.37-1.39) long. Genitalia: gonostyle 0.14 long, 0.03 wide, armed with four long, strong spines and a subterminal seta; one spine is apical, one subapical, the other two inserted as in Fig. 6. Gonocoxite 0.25 long, 0.09 wide, with a basal tuft of long narrow flexible setae inserted on a sclerotized longitudinal carina on the inner face of the structure. Paramere bifurcate, 0.17 long, wide at base, narrowing on distal half; lower arm with a tooth-like protuberance basally on the lower surface. Aedeagus conical, well sclerotized. Genital pump (Fig. 7) 0.16 long, genital filaments 0.37 long or 2.3 x length of pump; filaments narrow, truncated at apex, finely striated transversally on distal half. Surstyle 0.26 (0.25-0.27) long, cylindrical, not strongly inflated, distinctly curved, with three spatulate setae apically of which the terminal one is clearly the largest. Cercus subtriangular.

Female: small for the subgenus, 1.79 (1.78-1.81) long; colouration as in male. Head (Fig. 11) height from vertex to tip of clypeus 0.34 (0.32-0.36), width 0.27 (0.26-0.29). Interocular distance 0.11 (0.11-0.12) equivalent to 7.5 facet diamters; interocular suture incomplete. Cibarium (Fig. 10) with a uniform row of four horizontal teeth; chitinous arch complete; pigment patch weakly marked, narrow and tapering. Pharynx unarmed, with fine striations in posterior third, 0.15 (0.15-0.16) long. Flagellomere I 0.18 (0.18-0.20) long, II + III 0.19 (0.19-0.20) and not shorter than I. Ascoids and antennal formula as in male (cf. flagellomere II, Fig. 13). Labrum 0.24 (0.23-0.24) long. Maxillary palps 0.62 (0.60 -0.65) long, length of palpomeres: 1, 0.03; 2, 0.11 (0.10- 0.12); 3, 0.13; 4, 0.09 (0.08-0.09); 5, 0.26 (0.24-0.28). Thorax 0.44 (0.43-0.46) long from anterior margin of mesonotum to tip of scutellum. Wing (Fig. 12) length 1.51 (1.42-1.58), maximum width 0.49 (0.46-0.50); length of wing vein sections: alpha 0.40 (0.37-0.44), beta 0.18 (0.15-0.20), gamma 0.22 (0.21-0.23), delta 0.09 (0.07-0.12). Pleura with 20 (18-22) upper and 2 (2-3) lower episternal setae. Length of femora, tibiae and basitarsi: foreleg 0.65 (0.64-0.66), 0.63 (0.62- 0.64), 0.37 (0.37-0.38); midleg 0.65 (0.64 -0.66), 0.77 (0.76-0.78), 0.42 (0.41-0.42); hindleg 0.70 (0.69-0.71), 0.90 (0.86 -0.95), 0.47 (0.47-0.48); femora lacking spines. Abdomen 1.35 (1.34 -1.35) long. Genitalia: (Fig. 14) spermathecae tubular, elongate, lightly wrinkled; terminal knob oval, small but salient; common duct short and wide, length 1.7x its width, heavily striated horizontally throughout most of its length; individual ducts obsolescent. Genital fork strongly sclerotized, length of stem 1.3x its width at level of bifurcation. Cerci subtriangular.

Type materialHolotype G: BRAZIL, Pará, Oriximiná, Serra do Cachorro lower slopes approx. 200 m a.s.1. approx. 2 km south of 00o59'43"S and 057o07'09"W on the Rio Cachorro, mata de cipó 21/5/1998, light trap at 1m (TVB, F Lima Santos, RG Queiroz) slide number 01, Canada balsam. Allotype female (Slide 07) and five male (slides 02-06) and three female (slides 08-10) paratypes, same data. Holotype, allotype and paratypes in collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. One male and one female paratype to be deposited in the Fiocruz collection at the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Etymology - Genitive case of the personal name Georgius, of which Jorge is a modern equivalent, for Jorge Ramon Arias in recognition of his contributions to the taxonomy of the subgenus Evandromyia and other Phlebotominae.

Lutzomyia tarapacaensis Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo and Galati 1996. (Figs 415-24)

Lutzomyia sp.: Barrett et al. (1996, Fig. 4).

Male: as described for holotype, with the following additional observations and consistent minor differences. Interocular distance 0.10 equivalent to 6.8 facet diameters. Cibarium with a row of 4 vestigial horizontal teeth. Flagellomere I 0.26 (0.25-0.26) long; II + III 0.26, not longer than I. Paired ascoids present on flagellomeres I-XIII, simple, long, attaining or surpassing the apex of the flagellomere. Fifth palpomere P5 0.23 (0.22- 0.24) long, P4 subequal to P2. Pleura with 10 (9-12) upper and 1 (1-2) lower episternal setae. Length of femora, tibiae and basitarsi: foreleg, 0.71, 0.64, 0.34; midleg 0.64, 0.78, 0.41; hindleg 0.72, 0.98, 0.49; femora unarmed. Genital pump (Fig. 17) 0.14 (0.13-0.14) long, genital filaments 0.34 long or 2.5x length of pump. Surstyle 0.33 long. Cercus subtriangular.

Female: length of insect 1.9 (1.9-2.0), colouration uniformly pale throughout. Head (Fig. 22) height from vertex to tip of clypeus 0.33 (0.30-0.35), width 0.27 (0.26-0.28). Interocular distance 0.11 (0.10-0.12) equivalent to 6.1 facet diameters; interocular suture incomplete. Cibarium (Fig. 12) with a uniform row of 4 horizontal teeth above an irregular line of 6-8 small vertical teeth; chitinous arch complete; pigment patch narrowly tapering and indistinct. Pharynx unarmed, with fine striations in posterior third, 0.15 (0.13-0.16) long. Flagellomere I 0.25 (0.23-0.27) long, II + III 0.24 (0.23-0.25) and not longer that I. Ascoids and antennal formula as in male. Labrum 0.20 (0.18-0.21) long. Maxillary palps 0.57 (0.52-0.60) long; length of palpomeres: 1, 0.03; 2, 0.09 (0.08-0.10); 3, 0.12 (0.11-0.13); 4, 0.08 (0.07- 0.09); 5, 0.24 (0.22-0.26); 4 subequal to 2. Thorax 0.44 (0.38-0.7) long. Wing (Fig. 21) length 1.64 (1.49-1.75), width 0.54 (0.47-0.57). Length of wing vein sections: alpha 0.41 (0.34-0.44), beta 0.21 (0.19-0.24), gamma 0.26 (0.23-0.28), delta 0.14 (0.13-0.19). Pleura with 13 (9-18) upper and 2 (1-2) lower episternal setae. Length of femora, tibiae and basitarsi: foreleg, 0.73 (0.66-0.76), 0.73 (0.65-0.77), 0.44 (0.39-0.46); midleg 0.71 (0.68-0.74), 0.90 (0.88-0.93), 0.50 (0.49-0.52); hindleg 0.77 (0.76-0.78), 1.09 (1.07-1.11), 0.57 (0.56-0.58); femora unarmed. Abdomen 1.52 (1.50-1.56) long. Genitalia: (Fig. 23) spermathecae tubular, elongate, smooth-walled; terminal knob oval, small, invaginated in main body of structure; common duct relatively long and narrow, length 3.6x its width, smooth-walled; individual ducts not apparent. Genital fork strongly sclerotized, length of stem at least 2x its width at level of bifurcation. Cerci subtriangular.

Material examined - Five male and ten female specimens collected together with the type series of L. georgii in the same traps (Serra do Cachorro). Voucher specimens to be deposited at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia and The Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou.

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

Key to males of the subgenus Evandromyia

1. Surstyle with dorsal spatulate setae at tip. Aedeagus simple. Paramere divided or undivided........................... 2
Surstyle without dorsal spatulate setae. Aedeagus with a long ventral projection. Paramere trifurcate...............12

2. Paramere undivided or simply bifurcate. If bifurcate, lower arm with at most a small tooth-like protuberance......................................................................................3 Paramere divided, with a long ventral projection on lower arm (i.e., paramere trifurcate) (Fig. 1)................ L. begonae

3. Paramere undivided.............................................................4 Paramere bifurcate...............................................................7

4. Surstyle with a pair of dorsal spatulate setae at tip. Tip of paramere indented............................................ L. sipani Surstyle with 3 to 7 dorsal spatulate setae at tip. Tip of paramere entire.....................................................................5

5. Surstyle with 3 spatulate setae at tip. Gonocoxite with 5-8 small setae inserted in the basal tuft of long setae. Tips of genital filaments slender.....................L. bourrouli Surstyle with 4 or more spatulate setae at tip. Tips of genital filaments slender or inflated................................6

6. General colour of insect dark brown including pleura. Basal tuft of gonocoxite consisting entirely of long setae. Surstyle with 4 spatulate setae at tip. Tips of genital filaments slender.................................................... L. pinottii General colour of insect light brown. Surstyle with 4 or more spatulate setae at tip. Tips of genital filaments inflated.......................................................... L. aldafalcaoae

7. Spines of gonostyle short and strong, restricted to the distal third of the structure. Gonocoxite with a basal tuft of 7-8 short setae inserted on a tubercle......L. cerqueirai Gonostyle with longer spines, not restricted to the distal third. Gonocoxite with a basal tuft of long setae inserted individually on a longitudinal carina.......................8

8. Surstyle with a pair of spatulate setae at tip. Gonocoxite with a basal tuft of 4-6 persistent setae...............
..................................................................L. brachyphalla Surstyle with 3 spatulate setae at tip. Gonocoxite with a basal tuft of 12+ persistent setae....................................9

9. Genital filaments very thick, especially near end. Paramere broad throughout.................................L. inpai Genital filaments thin. Paramere broad basally, much narrower on distal half..........................................................10

10. General colour light brown. Lower arm of paramere with a ventral tooth-like projection (Fig. 3)...........
.................................................................... L. georgii n. sp. General colour pale. Lower arm of paramere simple.........11

11. Lower arm of paramere inserted obliquely, its length less than half that of upper arm (Fig. 4)...........................
...................................................................L. tarapacaensis Lower arm of paramere parallel to upper arm and more than half its length (Fig. 2)...........................L. infraspinosa

12. Ventral projection of aedeagus much longer than dorsal part of structure. Basal tuft of gonocoxite with 6 or 7 setae.............................................................. L. monstruosa

Ventral projection of aedeagus much shorter than dorsal part of structure. Coxite tuft with 12+ setae............
..........................................................................L. teratodes

Key to females of the subgenus Evandromyia

(The females of L. sipani and L. aldafalcaoae are undescribed; the pleura and scutum of L. sipani are probably heavily pigmented as in the male)

1. Spermathecae tubular, strongly recurved apically; common sperm duct very short................................................9
Spermathecae otherwise, common duct well developed........................................................................................2

2. Spermathecae and ducts smooth-walled.........................3
Spermathecae segmented, rugose or striated...................4

3. Main body of spermathecae oval, terminal knob salient, individual ducts much longer than spermathecae............ .............................................................. L. cerqueirai
Spermathecae tubular, elongate, terminal knob apparently invaginated; individual ducts not differentiated from main body of structure (Fig. 23).............. 
..................................................................L. tarapacaensis

4. Spermathecae dilated, less than twice as long as wide, apparently inserted directly on common duct.......
................................................................................. L. inpai
Spermathecae elongate, their length at least 3x their width.........................................................................................5

5. Pleura and scutum heavily pigmented........................ ................................................ L. bourrouli and L. pinottii
Pleura and scutum lightly pigmented or pale...................6

6. Spermathecae segmented or grossly rugose..................7
Spermathecae lightly striated............................................8

7. Spermathecae uniformly segmented, their width subequal to common duct.......................L. brachyphalla
Spermathecae irregularly rugose, narrower than common duct.................................................... L. infraspinosa

8. Pleura and scutum pale. Palpomere 5 about 2.5x length of P4..................................................................... L. begonae

Pleura and scutum light brown. Palpomere 5 >3x length of P4............................................................. L. georgii n. sp.

9. Spermathecae and individual sperm ducts subequal in width................................................................... L. teratodes
Spermathecae twice as wide as individual ducts............. ........................................................................ L. monstruosa

 

DISCUSSION

L. georgii n. sp., L. sipaniLtarapacaensis and L. aldafalcaoae can be attributed to the subgenus Evandromyia, Seriesinfraspinosa, because of the diagnostic presence of dorsal spatulate setae at the tip of the surstyle. Males of L. georgii can readily be differentiated from other members of the subgenus by using the key provided, or simply by the characteristic shapes of the parameres. Among the Evandromyia females with spermathecae apparently lacking individual sperm ducts, L. georgii and L. tarapacaensis can be distinguished from L. inpai by the posession of spermathecae that are much longer than wide. L. tarapacaensis has smooth-walled spermathecae and sperm ducts, whereas in L. georgii the common duct is conspicuously striated. Females of L. georgii and L. tarapacaensis were associated with their respective males by general body colour (much paler in L. tarapacaensis) and by the palpal formulae, palpomere P4 being subequal in length to P2 in males and females of 
L. tarapacaensis
, and P2 being distinctly (12-22%) longer than P4 in Lgeorgii.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To Artêmio Coelho da Silva for the figures. To Dr João Carlos Henrique and his team at Mineração Rio do Norte S.A. for logistic support in Porto Trombetas. To Nelson Ferreira Fé, Instituto de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, for the specimen of Lutzomyia begonae from Serra Pacaraima. To Waldenira Torres, for helping to prepare the manuscript.

 

REFERENCES

Barrett TV, Freitas RA, Albuquerque MIC, Hurtado Guerrero JC 1996. Report on a collection of Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Middle Solimões (Amazonas, Brazil). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91: 27-35.

Feliciangeli MD, Ramirez Perez J, Ramirez A 1988. The phlebotomine sandflies of Venezuelan Amazonia. Med Vet Entomol 2: 47-65.

Fernandez R, Carbajal F, Alexander B, Need JT 1994. Description of Lutzomyia (Evandromyiasipani, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Loreto Department, Peru. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 89: 167-169.

Freitas RA, Barrett TV 1999. Lutzomyia derelicta (Diptera: Psychodidae) a singular new phlebotomine sand fly from an inselberg in northeastern Amazonia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94: 629-633.

Le Pont F, Torrez-Espejo MJ, Galati EAB 1996. Phlébotomes de Bolivie: description de Lutzomyia (Evandromyia)tarapacaensis n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae). Bull Soc Ent France 101: 505-507.

Ortiz IC, Torres JR 1975. Phlebotomus begonae nov. sp. nuevo flebotomo del subgenero Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 em la region Nor-Occidental Amazonica Venezolana (Diptera: Psychodidae). Rev Inst Nac Hig 8: 101-105.

Quate LW, Alexander JB 2000. Synopsis of the New World Nemapalpus (Diptera, Psychodidae, Bruchomyiinae) with description of four new species. Ann Entomol Soc Am 93: 185-193.

Ryan L 1986. Flebótomos do Estado do Pará, Brasil, Documento Técnico no 1, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 154 pp.

Santos SO, Andrade Filho JD, Honer MR 2001. Lutzomyia aldafalcaoae sp. n. a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 791-794.

Young DG, Arias JR 1977. Lutzomyia sand flies in the subgenus Evandromyia Mangabeira with descriptions of a new species from Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae). Acta Amazonica 7: 59-70.

Young DG, Duncan MA 1994. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae), Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute No. 54, Associated Publishers, Gainesville, 881 pp.

CONTACT US

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Av. Brasil 4365, Castelo Mourisco
sala 201, Manguinhos, 21040-900
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Tel.: +55-21-2562-1222

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

twitterfacebook

SUPPORT PROGRAM

marca fiocruzmarca brasil
marca faperjmarca cnpqmarca capes n marca cope

and diabetes. Erection dysfunction or ED is certainly one of mens most usual problem. It changes buy tadalafil 60mg A common drug is actually an imitation of its manufacturer twin. Both ought to be same in female cialis 20mg Long Phrase Viagra Use Fundamentally Damages Sex Lives This discount cialis canada Equally so, theres something to be said for the wonder of the second, captured forever on picture or a buy cheap cialis People extremely annoyed that they could only get three weeks at a time, Bunker noted. Retired persons cheap pharmacy These types of matters are possibly to being identified as having a result of cancer buy cialis 40mg - Yoghourt - fat-free simply Physical causes: Buying generic medicines now has been cheap generic cialis Herbaceous plants like nigrum and tribulus are well-known for his or her qualities in defeating impotence, which tadalafil 10mg It is not hard to consider Cialis that is generic. Most men start with one-10 mg dosage each purchase cialis Tadalafil quickly gained the moniker of weekender in Paris due to the fabulous results. The bash freaks buy female cialis