MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 95 (Suppl.I) November 2000
PAGES: 133-139 DOI: Full paper
Microsporidia and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

J Schottelius, SC Gonçalves da Costa* +

Section of Parasitology, Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany
*Laboratório de Imunomodulação, Departamento de Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Abstract

Microsporidia is a common term that has been used to refer to a group of eukaryotic, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. They are important agricultural parasites, contaminating commercial insects; they are also important by infecting laboratory rodents, rabbits and primates. Ever since the early cases found by Magarino Torres, who reported the presence of Encephalitozoon in a patient suffering of a meningoencephalomyelitis, some human pathology caused by microsporidia has been described. However, only after the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome outbreak have these organisms appeared as significant etiological agents in different pathologies. Even so, they remain underestimated. In the present article, the importance of microsporidia for the human pathology in immunocompromised host has been stressed.

Parasites belonging to the phylum microspo-ridia Balbiani 1882 (Sprague & Becnel 1998) are spore-forming, small, obligate intracellular living eukaryotes with a unique morphology (Vavra & Larsson 1999). These parasites are distributed by spores which contain a characteristic polar tube apparatus which is necessary for the transfer of the "the parasite" sporoplasm, from the spore to a host cell. The mature spores are Gram positive. The spore wall is composed of a protein-rich exospore, an electron-dense surface coat, and a structure-less layer below this coat, the electron-transparent endospore which contains chitin. The internal surface of the endospore is covered by a plasma membrane which limits the cytoplasma of the spore. The life cycle of these parasites comprise three distinct phases: the infective phase, the proliferative, vegetative phase or schizogonie and the spore-forming phase or sporogony. Microsporidia are world-wide distributed in invertebrates and vertebrates including man. More than 140 genera including more than 1,000 species are known (Wittner & Weiss 1999).

The first mammalian infection was reported by Wright and Craighead (1922) in rabbits. The first human case was described by Magarinos Torres in 1927. Some years later Matsubayashi et al. (1959) described another case of a 9-year old Japanese boy with headache, recurrent fever, seizures, among other symptoms. Margileth et al. (1973) described an human case proven by autopsy of a 4-month old immunocompromised infant with thymic aplasia and disseminated nosematosis. Ashton and Wirashina (1973) mentioned a case of ocular microsporidiosis in a 11- year old boy from Sri Lanka. Pinnolis et al. (1981) described the case of an African woman with a perforated corneal ulcer. The parasite was identified as Nosema.

Up to the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids) pandemie in 1981, only single cases of microsporidia infections in men and animals were reported because these microorganisms were not routinely diagnosed. Since this time, the microsporidia are increasingly recognized as cause of severe infections with a wide range of clinicopathologic findings especially in immuno-compromised patients. At present, seven genera: Enterocytozoon, Encephalitozoon, Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, Vittaforma, Brachiola, with 12 species are known as pathogens in humans plus the collective group of Microsporidium with uncertain taxonomic status. The spores of these genera can morphologically be distinguished in regard of the combination of the number of their nuclei (one or two), the number and arrangement of the coils of the polar filament inside the spores and whether the spore is envolved by a parasitophoric vacuole or not in the cytoplasm of the host cell.

From the mentioned microsporidia, only the species E. bieneusi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis, E. cuniculi, Pleistophora sp.,T. hominis, T. anthropopthera, N. connori, B. vessicularum, V. vesicularum were diagnosed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) together with a Thelohania/Pleistophora-like parasite. From patients without HIV were described E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis, E. bieneusi, N. ocularum, V. coneae, M. ceylonensis and M. africanum. In both groups of patients special attention should be paid to ocular microsporidial infections. In patients without HIV such infections were found with Nosema, Vittaforma and Microsporidium; in patients with HIV E. cuniculi-like, E. hellem and E. intestinalis plus some cases without analysis of the genera and species (Kotler & Orenstein 1999).

 

GENERA AND SPECIES

ENCEPHALITOZOON

The genus Encephalitozoon contains the species E. cuniculi, E. hellem and E. intestinalis. These pathogens are morphologically indistinguishable. The development of the spores takes place in the cytoplasm of the host cell inside of a parasito-phorous vacuole. In the longitudinally sectioned spores, the polar filament can be seen in form of five to six coils arranged regularly in a single row. The mature spores have only one nucleus. This pathogen has a reservoir in different mammals (Canning 1998). This agent was also found in HIV patients (Deplazes et al. 1996, Didier et al. 1996a, Weber et al. 1997). Human infections with this microorganism can not be discussed without a side-glance on animal pathogenic strains. Up to now three groups have been identified: group I was originally isolated from rabbits and also described from HIV patients (Deplazes 1996). The group II was isolated from a mouse and is able to infect blue foxes but was not found in humans, until now (Didier 1995). Group III was isolated from domestic dogs and identified in Aids patients (Didier et al. 1996b). These examples demonstrate that in some cases human infections can trace back to animal reservoirs. The importance of these strain variations and whether E. cuniculi strains exist pathogen only for animals should furtherhin be observed.

Spores of E. cuniculi - Have been found in a patient with cytomegalovirus adrenalitis. The spores were seen in epithelium and endothelial cells of the adrenal glands. De Groote et al. (1995) described three pathogens in the soft tissue of a tongue ulcer in a patient with Aids with a disseminated E. cuniculi infection. These protozoa were also described by Belcher et al. (1997) as infection of the mandible of an Aids patient. Weber et al. (1997) reported that E. cuniculi infection in Aids patients was associated with keratoconjunctivitis, hepatitis, peritonitis, encephalititis, urinary tract infections and respiratory tract infections. A case of E. cuniculi infection of duodenal mucosa was described by Franzen et al. (1995). This patient has had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Franzen et al. (1996) analyzed this species as pathogen for a chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with Aids. Zender et al. (1989) mentioned a case of peritonitis in an immunocompromised patient. Experimentally infections with E. cuniculi and E. hellem could be transferred to healthy and immunocompromised rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta (Didier et al. 1994).

E. hellem - This microsporidia was found in immunocompromised patients. The first isolation and characterization was made from Aids patients with keratoconjunctivitis. This pathogen was also diagnosed in cases of chronic rhinosinusitis (Eeftinck-Schattenkerk et al. 1992), disseminated microsporidiosis (Schwartz et al. 1992), keratoconjunctivitis (Schwartz et al. 1993a), bronchiolitis (Schwartz et al. 1993b), isolated out
of a prostatic abcess (Schwartz et al. 1994), pulmonary and intestinal microsporidiosis (Weber et al. 1992), in an Aids patient with pulmonary colonization, microhematuria, and mild conjunctivitis (Weber et al. 1993). This pathogen could be identified in cases of superficial keratitis in Aids patients (Didier et al. 1991). Cases of ocular microsporidiosis are described by Diesenhouse et al. (1993), Rosberger et al. (1993), Schwartz et al. (1993a), Didier et al. (1996a) and Silverstein et al. (1997). Until today, E. hellem was found in immunocompetent humans (Weber et al. 1999) and could be transferred to M. mulatta (Didier et al. 1994). Furthermore, this infection was detected in wild parrot (Suter et al. 2000).

E. intestinalis (formerly Septata intestinalis) - this pathogen was first described by Cali et al. (1991b) found in patients with chronic diarrhea, by Orenstein et al. (1992) in a case of disseminated microsporidiosis and from humans infecting enterocytes, macrophages and associated with diarrhea in an Aids patient. This result was underlined by the analysis of Baker et al. (1995) who suggest that S. intestinalis should be designated as E. intestinalis on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal DNA. This parasite was found associated with chronic diarrhea and dissemin-
ation in Aids patients (Cali et al. 1993), small intestinal microsporidiosis (Field et al. 1993). Orenstein et al. (1993) reported about four cases of S. intestinalis infection in Aids patients with intestinal and disseminated microsporidiosis. This microsporidia species was not only found in immunocompromised persons but also in immunocompetent humans. Enriquez et al. (1997) described such infections in children and adults with diarrhea and in travelers with chronic diarrhea (Raynaud et al. 1998). This pathogen was found in dogs, pigs, cows, goats and donkeys (Bornay-Llinares et al. 1998) and SCID mice could be infected (Achbaron et al. 1996, Enriquez et al. 1997). Therefore, it can not be excluded that by an oral-fecal infection these pathogens can be transferred from animals to humans. Patients with E. intestinalis infection have the tendency to develop disseminated infection (Molina et al. 1995). A consequence of E. intestinalis infection can be the break-down of the renal function. The infection of the kidneys can result in urethritis (Corcoran et al. 1996, Soule et al. 1997). E. intestinalis can infect the biliary tract (Schwartz & Bryan 1997). Ocular infections with E. intestinaliswere reported by Lowder et al. (1990).

E. bieneusi - this pathogen was first described by Desportes Livage et al. (1985). It is found in enterocytes of the small intestine of HIV patients with chronic diarrhea (Orenstein et al. 1997). Furtherhin this agent was identified, in pulmonary and intestinal microsporidiosis (Weber et al. 1992), and in the biliary tree, gall bladder the biliary tract and nonparachymal liver cells (Beangerie et al. 1992, Pol et al. 1992). The spores and their electron microscopical morphology can be distinguished from the spores and their morphology of the species of the genus Encephalitozoon. The spores of E. bieneusi are formed in direct contact with the cytoplasma of the host cell and not enveloped by a parasitophoric vacuole. The mature spores have one nucleus and the polar filament has five to six coils forming two rows (Vavra & Larsson 1999). E. bieneusi was found as cause of self-limited diarrhea in immunonocompetent persons (Weber et al. 1994, Bryan et al. 1997). Bertange et al. (1993) described that this microsporidia was found in 1% of African children with diarrhea. Furtherhin it was found that this opportunistic protozoa was diagnosed in patients with bone-marrow, liver, and heart-lung transplantation (Weber et al. 1994, Rabodonirina et al. 1996).

E. bieneusi was first described as animal infection in a pig by Deplazes et al. (1996). This microsporidia species could also be detected in macaques which had been experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (Mansfield et al. 1998), in contrast to human infections where these pathogens were found in the small intestine, in the macaques the parasites were found in the gallbladder. Carville et al. (1997) have found this agent in immunocompetent macaques which were not infected by SIV.

Tzipori et al. (1997) were successful to transfer an infection of E. bieneusi from an Aids patient to SIV infected macaques.

PLEISTOPHORA TRACHIPLEISTOPHORA

Pleistophora spp. was found in three immuno-deficient patients: first in an immunodeficient but HIV negative man, then in Aids patients (Ledford et al. 1985, Macher et al. 1988, Grau et al. 1996) suffering in myositis. These microsporidia are serious muscle parasites of fishes (Canning & Lom 1986, Lom & Dykova 1992). These are the only publications of these microsporidia species in mammals.

In another case of myositis of an Aids patient, biopsy material from the skeletmuscle was transferred to tissue culture and athymic mice (Hollister et al. 1996). This patient has had an additional infection in the corneal epithelium. The development and ultrastructure of these parasites differ from the genus Pleistophora and give rise to nomination of the genus and species T. hominis. Field et al. (1996) reported about a second case of human Aids with myositis and infection with T. hominis. Vavra et al. (1998) described the second species T. anthropopthera found in the brain of one and in the kidneys, brain, heart, liver, spleen, lymph nodes bone marrow, pancreas, thyroid and parathyroid of a second Aids patient. Both species differ in their development.

The mature spores of Pleistophora and Trachipleistophora have 9 to 12 coils, only one nucleus and develop inside of a parasitophoric vacuole. Pleistophora spp. form in merogonic and sporogonic proliferation multinucleate plasmidia whileTrachipleistophora spp. has division of meronts and sporonts by a binary fission.

VITTAFORMA

Davis et al. (1990) have given a case report about a corneal microsporidiosis. This pathogen was named N. corneum by Shadduck et al. (1990). The investigation of the ultrastructure of the developmental forms in athymic mice (Silveira & Canning 1995) gave rise to the denomination of this agent as V. corneae. Later, this microsporidia was found in the urinary tract of an Aids patient (Deplazes et al. 1997). The mature spores are diplokaryotic with a polar filament of six coils. The development of the parasite takes place in direct contact with host cell cytoplasma. The mature spore is enclosed in several membranous layers (Vavra & Larsson 1999). An animal host of this parasite is not known.

BRACHIOLA

The species B. vesicularum was found in a patient with Aids associated with myositis (Cali et al. 1998). In the mature spores of the diplokaryotic B. vesicularum, the polar tube forms two rows of coils, each row with 8 to 10 coils, but they can also be arranged in single and triple rows of coils. This pathogen seems only to be infective for muscle cells. The development of the spores takes place in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. The formerly described B. connori (Sprague 1974) is a synonym for N. connoris (Sprague 1974, Cali et al. 1998).

MICROSPORIDIUM

The collective group of microsporidium includes microsporidia species of which the genetic position is unclear, the developmental cycle unknown. Two human pathogenic microsporidia are placed in this group: M. ceylonensis and M. africanum. Ashton and Wirasinha (1973) described the case of an 11-year old Tamil boy with a corneal ulcera. Sprague (1977) described this parasite as Nosema sp. Canning and Lom (1986) transferred this pathogen to the collective group of microsporidium and denominated this agent as M. ceylonensis. Pinnolis et al. (1981) presented a second case of a 36 year old woman from Botswana with a perforated corneal ulcer. This parasite was identified as Nosema sp. Canning and Lom (1986) transferred this agent to the collective group of microsporidum and named it M. africanum.

NOSEMA

Microsporidia of the genus Nosema normally parasites in invertebrates. One case of a disseminated infection with this pathogen was found in a athymic infant (Margileth et al. 1973, Canning & Lom 1986). This microorganism was described as N. connori. In a second case, ocular microsporidiosis was diagnosed in a patient without immunodeficiency with keratitis. The parasite was named N. ocularum (Cali et al. 1991a). The development of these protozoa occur in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasma. The mature spore has paired nuclei and contain a polar filament with 11 coils.

The clinical manifestations of human microsporidial infections include systemic, intestinal, muscular and ocular diseases in immunocompromised and immunocompetent humans. Not all mentioned microsporidia species have been found in both groups of patients. The question can not be answered whether microsporidia species exist which are able to infect only one of both patient groups. We do not know how many of these opportunistic protozoa are pathogens for humans. But the clinical manifestations are so manifold and so grave, especially for immunocompromised patients, that these microorganisms should be included in the routine diagnosis of such patients.

 

REFERENCES

Achbaron A, Mazier D, Desportes-Livage I, Renia L, Charlotte F, Gneragbe T, Onbrouck C 1996. Experiment model for human intestinal microsporidiosis in interferon gamma receptor knockout mice infected byEncephalitozoon intestinalis. Parasite Immunol 18: 387-392.

Ashton N, Wirashina PA 1973. Encephalitozoonosis (nosematosis) of the cornea. Br J Ophthalmol 57: 669-674.

Baker MD, Vossbrinck CR, Didier ES, Maddox JV, Shadduck JA 1995. Small subunit ribosomal DNA phylogenic of various microsporidia with emphasis on AIDS related forms. J Eukaryot Microbiol 42: 564-570.

Beangerie L, Teilhac MF, Deluol AM, Fritsch J, Girard PM, Rozembaum W, Lequintrec Y, Chatelet FP 1992. Cholangiopathy associated with Microsporidia infection of the common bile duct mucosa in a patient with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 117: 401-402.

Belcher JW, Guttenberg SA, Schmooker BM 1997. Microsporidiosis of the mandible in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 55: 424-426.

Bertange S, Foulet F, Alkassoum W, Fleury-Feith J, Develoux M 1993. Prevalence des spores d´Enterocytozoon bieneusi dans les selles de patient sideens et d'enfants Africains non infectes par le VIH. Bull Soc Pathol Exot86: 531.

Bornay-Llinares FJ, Da Silva AJ, Moura H, Schwartz DA, Visvesvara GS, Pieniazek NJ, Cruz-Lopez A, Hernandez-Jauregui P, Guerrero J, Enriquez FJ 1998. Immunologic, microscopic, and molecular evidence ofEncephalitozoon intestinalis (Septata intestinalis) infection in mammals other than humans. J Infect Dis 178: 820-826.

Bryan RT, Schwartz DA, Weber R 1997. Mi-crosporidiosis in patients who are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 24: 534-535.

Cali A, Kotler DP, Orenstein JM 1993. Septata intestinalis n.g., n.sp., an intestinal microsporidian associated with chronic diarrhea and dissemination in AIDS patients. J Protozool 40: 101-112.

Cali A, Meisler DM, Lowder CY, Lembal R, Ayers L, Takvorian PM, Rutherford I, Long-worth DL, McMahon J, Bryan RT 1991a. Corneal microsporidiosis. Characterization and identification. J Protozool 38: 215S-217S.

Cali A, Orenstein JM, Kotler DP, Owen RL 1991b. A comparison of two microsporidian parasites in enterocytes of AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea. J Protozool 38: 96S-98S.

Cali A, Takvorian PM, Lewin S, Rendel M, Sian CS, Wittner M, Tanowitz HB, Keohane E, Weiss LM 1998.Brachiola vesicularum, n.g., n.sp., a new mi-crosporidium associated with AIDS and myositis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 45: 240-251.

Canning EU 1998. Microsporidiosis. In SR Palmer, Lord Soulsby, DIH Simpson (eds), Zoonoses, Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, p. 603-623.

Canning EU, Lom J 1986. The Microsporidia of Vertebrates, Hartcourt Brace Jovanowich, Publ., London, New York, 289 pp.

Carville A, Meansfield K, Link KC, McKay J, Chalifoux L, Lackner A 1997. Genetic and ultrastructural characterization of Encephalitozoon bieneusi in simian immunodeficiency virus infected and immunocompetent rhesus macaques. Vet Pathol 34: 515.

Corcorsan GD, Chiodini PL, Daniels C, Isaacson JM 1996. Urethritis associated with disseminated microsporidiosis: clinical response to albendazole. Clin Inf Dis 22: 592-593.

Davis RM, Font RL, Keisler MS, Shadduck JA 1990. Corneal microsporidiosis. A case report including ultrastructural observations. Ophthalmology 97: 953-957.

De Groote MA, Visvesvara GS, Wilson ML, Pieniazek NJ, Slemenda SB, Da Silva AJ, Letch GJ, Bryan RT, Reves R 1995. Polymerase chain reaction and culture confirmation of disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculiinfection in a patient with Aids. Successful therapy with albendazole. J Infect Dis 171:1375-1378.

Deplazes P, Mathis A, Muller C, Weber R 1996. Molecular epidemiology of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and first detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in faecal samples of pigs. J Eukaryot Microbiol 43: 93S.

Deplazes P, Saanen van M, Iten A, Mathis A, Keller R, Tanner I, Weber R, Canning EU 1997. Double infection with Vittaforma corneae and Encephalitozoon hellem in an AIDS patient. In Program and Abstract, 10th Intern Congress of Protozoology, Sydney, Australia, p. 75.

Desportes-Livage I, Charpentier Le A, Galian A, Bernard F, Cochand-Priollet B, Lavergne A, Ravisse P, Modiglian R 1985. Occurrence of a new microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi n.g., n.sp., in the enterocytes of a human patient with AIDS. J Protozool 32: 250-254.

Didier ES 1995. Reactive mitogen intermediates implicated in the inhibition of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (phylum Microspora) replication in murine peritoneal macrophages. Parasite Immunol 17: 406-412.

Didier E, Didier P, Friedberg D, Stenson S, Orenstein J, Yee R, Tio F, Davis R, Vossbrinck C, Millichamp N, Shadduck J 1991. Isolation and characterization of a new human microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem (n. sp.), from three AIDS patients with kerato-conjunctivitis. J Infect Dis 163: 617-621.

Didier ES, Rogers LB, Brush AD, Wong S, Traina-Dosge V, Bertuccci D 1996a. Diagnosis of disseminated microsporidian Encephalitozoon hellem infection by PCR-Southern analysis and successful treatment with albendazol and fumagillin. J Clin Microbiol 34: 947-952.

Didier ES, Varner PU, Didier PJ, Aldras AM, Millichamp NJ, Murphey-Corb M, Bohm R, Shadduck JA 1994. Experimental microsporidiosis in immunocompetent and immunodeficent mice and monkey. Folia Parasitol 41: 1-11.

Didier ES, Visvesvara GS, Baker MD, Rogers LB, Bertucci DC, De Groote MA, Vossbrinck CR 1996b. A microsporidian isolated from an Aids patient corresponds to Encephalitozoon cuniculi III, originally isolated from domestic dogs. J Clin Microbiol 43: 2835-2837.

Diesenhouse M, Wilson L, Corrent G, Visvesvara G, Grossniklaus H, Bryan R 1993. Treatment of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis with topical fumagillin. Am J Ophthalmol 115: 293-298.

Eeftinck-Schattenkerck JKM, Gool van T, Schot LS, van den Bergh Weerman M, Dankert J 1992. Chronic rhinosinusitis, a new clinical syndrome in HIV infected patients with microsporidiosis. Workshop on intestinal microsporidia in HIV infection, Paris , Abstract.

Enriquez FJ 1997. Microsporidia: immunity and immunodiagnosis. In Abstract 2nd Workshop on Microsporidiosis and Cryptosporidiosis in Immunodeficient Patients, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Enriquez FJ, Cruz-Lopez AP, Palting JD, Cruz-Lopez P, Hernandez-Janregui P, Tellez C, Guerrero J, Curran B 1997. Prevalence of microsporidial infection in children and adults with diarrhea. In Abstracts of the 97th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. Washington DC, Abstr. C-216, p. 158.

Field AS, Hing MC, Marriott DJ 1993. Small intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV infected patients in Sydney, Australia. In Abstract 1st Workshop on Microsporidiosis and Cryptosporidiosis in Immunodeficient Patients, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Field AS, Marriott DJ, Milliken ST, Brew BJ, Canning EU, Keuch JG, Darveniza P, Harkness JL 1996. Myositis associated with a newly described microsporidian, Trachipleistophora hominis, in a patient with AIDS. J Clin Microbiol 34: 2803-2811.

Franzen C, Diehl V, Mahrle G, Hartmann P, Fatkenheuer G, Salzberger B, Schwenk A, Müller A, Visvesvara GS, Schwartz DA 1995. Immunologically confirmed disseminated, asymptomatic Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with Aids. Clin Infect Dis 21: 1480-1484.

Franzen C, Müller A, Salzberger B, Fatkenheuer G, Diehl V, Schrappe R 1996. Chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with Aids: potential role of microsporidia. AIDS 10: 687-688.

Friedberg D, Stenson S, Orenstein J, Tierno D, Charles N 1990. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 108: 504-508.

Grau A, Valls ME, Williams JE, Ellis DS, Muntane MJ, Nadal C 1996. Miotis por Pleistophora en un paciente con SIDA. Med Clin Barcelona 107: 779-781.

Hollister WS, Canning EU, Weidner E, Field AS, Keuch J, Marriott DJ 1996. Development and ultrastructure ofTrachipleistophora hominis ng., n. sp. after in vitro isolation from an Aids patient and inoculation into athymic mice. Parasitology 112: 143-154.

Kotler DP, Orenstein JM 1999. Clinical syndromes associated with microsporidiosis. In M Wittner, LM Weiss (eds), The Microsporidia and Micro-sporidiosis, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, p. 258-292.

Ledford DK, Overman MD, Gonzalvo A, Cali A, Mesler SW, Lockey RF 1985. Microsporidian myositis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 102: 628-630.

Lom J, Dykova I 1992. Protozoan Parasites of Fishes. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Sciences, Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 314 pp.

Lowder CY, Meisler DM, McMahon JT, Longworth DL, Rutherford I 1990. Microsporidia infection of the cornea in a man seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Ophthalmol 109: 242-244.

Macher AM, Neafie R, Angritt P, Tuus SM 1988. Microsporidial myositis and the acquired im-munodeficiency syndrome Aids: a four-year follow-up. Ann Intern Med 109: 343.

Mansfield KG, Carville A, Hebert D, Chalifoux L, Shvetz D, Tzipori LS, Lackner AA 1998. Localization of persistent Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in normal Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Hepatobiliary Tree. J Clin Microbiol 36: 2336-2338.

Magarinos Torres C 1927. Adffinités de l'Encephalitozoon chagasi, agent étilogique d`une ménigo-encéphalo-myélite congénitale avec myocardite e myosite chez l'homme. Comptes reudus des séances de la Société de Biologie: 1787-1789.

Margileth AM, Strano AJ, Chandro R, Neafie R, Blum M, McCully RM 1973. Disseminated nosematosis in an immunologically compromised infant. Arch Pathol 95: 145-150.

Matsubayashi H, Koike T, Mikata T, Hagiwara S 1959. A case of Encephalitozoon like body infection in man.Arch Pathol 67: 181-187.

Molina JM, Modai J, Derouin F, Jaccard A, Sarfati C, Beanvais B, Oksenhendler E 1995. Disseminated microsporidiosis due to Septata intestinalis in patients with Aids: clinical features and response to albendazole therapy. J Infect Dis 171: 245-249.

Orenstein JM, Dieterich DT, Kotler DP 1993. Albendazole as a treatment for intestinal and disseminated microsporidiosis due to Septata intestinalis in Aids patients: a report for four cases. Aids 7 (Suppl. 3): S40-S42.

Orenstein JM, Gaetz HG, Yachnis AT, Frankel SS, Mertens RB, Didier ES 1997. Disseminated microsporidiosis in Aids. Are any organs spared? AIDS 11: 385-386.

Orenstein JM, Tenner M, Cali A, Kotler DP 1992. A microsporidian previously undescribed in humans, infecting enterocytes and macrophages, and associated with diarrhea in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient.Human Pathol 23: 722-728.

Pinnolis M, Egbert PR, Font RL, Winter FC 1981. Nosematosis of the cornea: case report including electron microscopic studies. Arch Ophthalmol 99: 1044-1014.

Pol S, Romano C, Richard S, Carnot F, Dumont JL, Bouche H, Pialonx G, Stern M, Pays JF, Berthelot P 1992.Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - related sclerosing cholangitis.Gastroenterology 102: 1778-1781.

Rabodonirina M, Bertocchi M, Desportes-Livage I, Cotte L, Levrey H, Piens MA, Momeret G, Colard M, Mornex JF, Mogou M 1996. Enterocytozoon bieneusi as a cause of chronic diarrhea in a heart-lung transplantat recipient who was seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 23: 114-117.

Raynaud L, Delbac F, Broussolle V, Rabodonirina M, Girault V, Wallon M, Cozon G, Vivares CP, Peyron F 1998. Identification of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in travelers with chronic diarrhea by specific PCR amplification. J Clin Microbiol 36: 37-40.

Rosberger D, Serdarevic G, Erlandson R, Bryan R, Schwartz D, Visvesvara G, Keenan PC 1993. Successful treatment of microsporidial kera-toconjunctivitis with topical fumagillin in a patient with Aids. Cornea 12: 261-265.

Schwartz DA, Bryan RT 1997. Microsporidia. In CR Horsburgh, AM Nelson (eds), Pathology of Emerging Infections, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, p. 61-93.

Schwartz DA, Bryan RT, Hewan-Lowe KW, Visvesvara GS, Weber R, Cali A, Angritt P 1992. Disseminated microsporidiosis (Encephalitozoon hellem) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med 116: 660-666.

Schwartz DA, Visvesvara GS, Diesenhouse MC, Weber R, Font RL, Wilson LA, Corrent G, Rosberger DF, Keenen PJ, Grossniklaus H, Hewan-Lowe K, Bryan RT 1993a. Ocular paphology of microsporidiosis: role of immunofluorescent antibody for diagnosis of Encephalitozoon hellem in biopsies, smears, and intact globes from seven Aids patients. Am J Ophthalmol 115: 285-292.

Schwartz DA, Visvesvara GS, Leitch GJ, Tashjian L, Pollack M, Holden J, Bryan RT 1993b. Pathology of symtomatic microsporidial (Encephalitozoon hellem) bronchiolitis in Aids: a new respiratory pathogen diagnosed from lung biopsy broncho alveolar lavage, sputum, and tissue culture. Human Pathol 24: 937-943.

Schwartz DA, Visvesvara GS, Weber R, Bryan RT 1994. Male genital tract microsporidiosis and Aids: prostatic abcess due to Encephalitozoon hellem. J Eukaryot Microbiol 41: 61S.

Shadduck JA, Meccoli RA, Davis R, Font RL 1990. Isolation of a microsporidian from a human patient. J Infect Dis 162: 772-776.

Silveira H, Canning EU 1995. Vittaforma corneae N. Comb. for the human microsporidium Nosema corneumShadduck, Meccoli, Davis & Font, 1990, based on ist ultrastructure in the liver of experimentally infected athymic mice. J Eukaryot Microbiol 42: 158-165.

Silverstein B, Cunningham EJ, Margolis T, Cavallos V, Wong I 1997. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Ophthal Mol 124: 395-396.

Soule JB, Orenstein JM, Pistole MC, Becker RB, Helverson AL 1997. A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and untreated Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis micro-sporidiosis leading to small bowel perforation: response to albendazole. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121: 880-887.

Sprague V 1974. Nosema connori n. sp., microsporidian parasite in man. Trans Amer Microsc Soc 93: 400-403.

Sprague V 1977. Annoted host of species of microsporidia. In LA Bulla, TC Chang (eds), Comparative Pathology, 2 Systematics of the Microsporidia, Plenum Press New York, London.

Sprague V, Becnel JJ 1998. Note on the name-author-date combination for the taxon Microsporidies Balbiani 1882, when ranked as a phylum. J Invertebr Pathol 71: 91-94.

Suter C, Mathis A, Hoop R, Deplazes P 2000. Imported Encephalitozoon hellem infection in a wild parrot (Chalopsitta sciutillata) from Indonesia. Vet Res, in press.

Tzipori S, Carville A, Widmer G, Kotler D, Mansfield K, Lackner A 1997. Transmission and establishment of a persistent infection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, derived from a human with Aids, in simian immunodeficiency virus infected rhesus monkey. J Infect Dis 175: 1016-1020.

Vavra J, Larsson JTR 1999. Structure of the microsporidia. In M Wittner, LM Weiss (eds),The Microsporidia andMicrosporidiosis, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, p.7-84.

Vavra J, Yachnis AT, Shadduck JA, Orenstein JM 1998. Microsporidia of the genus Trachipleistophora -causative agent of human microsporidiodid. Description of Trachipleistophora anthropopthera n. sp., (Protozoa, Microsporidia). J Eukaryot Microbiol 45: 273-283.

Weber R, Bryan RT, Schwartz DA, Owen RL 1994. Human microsporidial infection. Clin Microbiol Reviews 7: 426-461.

Weber R, Deplazes P, Flepp M, Mathis A, Baumann R, Sauer B, Kuster H, Luethy R 1997. Cerebral microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 336: 474-478.

Weber R, Kuster H, Keller R, Baechi T, Spycher MA, Briner J, Russi E, Luethy R 1992. Pulmonary and intestinal microsporidiosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 146: 1603-1605.

Weber R, Kuster H, Visvesvara GS, Bryan RT, Schwartz DA, Luethy R 1993. Disseminated microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem: pulmonary colonization, microtic hematurie and mild conjubctivitis in a patient with Aids. Clin Infect Dis 17: 415-419.

Weber R, Schwartz DA, Deplazes P 1999. Laboratory Diagnosis. In M Wittner, LM Weiss (eds), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, p. 315-362.

Wittner M, Weiss LM 1999. The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, USA, 553 pp.

Wright JH, Craighead EM 1922. Infectious motor paralysis in young rabbits. J Exp Med 36: 135-149.

Zender HO, Arrigoni E, Eckert J, Kapanci Y 1989. A case of Encephalitis cuniculi peritonitis in a patient with Aids. Am J Clin Pathol 92: 352-356.

+Corresponding author. Fax: +55-21-598.4323

E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Received 7 August 2000

Accepted 4 September 2000

CONTACT US

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Av. Brasil 4365, Castelo Mourisco
sala 201, Manguinhos, 21040-900
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Tel.: +55-21-2562-1222

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

twitterfacebook

SUPPORT PROGRAM

marca fiocruzmarca brasil
marca faperjmarca cnpqmarca capes n marca cope

and diabetes. Erection dysfunction or ED is certainly one of mens most usual problem. It changes buy tadalafil 60mg A common drug is actually an imitation of its manufacturer twin. Both ought to be same in female cialis 20mg Long Phrase Viagra Use Fundamentally Damages Sex Lives This discount cialis canada Equally so, theres something to be said for the wonder of the second, captured forever on picture or a buy cheap cialis People extremely annoyed that they could only get three weeks at a time, Bunker noted. Retired persons cheap pharmacy These types of matters are possibly to being identified as having a result of cancer buy cialis 40mg - Yoghourt - fat-free simply Physical causes: Buying generic medicines now has been cheap generic cialis Herbaceous plants like nigrum and tribulus are well-known for his or her qualities in defeating impotence, which tadalafil 10mg It is not hard to consider Cialis that is generic. Most men start with one-10 mg dosage each purchase cialis Tadalafil quickly gained the moniker of weekender in Paris due to the fabulous results. The bash freaks buy female cialis