MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 104(1) February 2009
PAGES: 81-92 DOI: S0074-02762009000100013 Full paper
Five new species of Culicoides Latreille described from Colombia, yielding a new species list and country records (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

Gustavo R SpinelliI, +; Erika SantamaríaII; Olga L CabreraII; María M RonderosI; Marco F SuárezII

IDivisión Entomología, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
IILaboratorio de Entomología, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia

Abstract

The following five new species of Culicoides from Colombia are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group: Culicoides antioquiensis, Culicoides gabrieli, Culicoides inermis, Culicoides micayensis and Culicoides nigrifemur. C. gabrieli is also known from Peru. When possible, their position in previously published keys is indicated and their features discussed in light of the most recent revisions. A list of 180 Culicoides species known (114) or suspected of being in Colombia (66) is given in a Table. Of these, 12 including the new species are recorded from Colombia for the first time.

Species in the genus CulicoidesLatreille are by far the most notorious members of the 109 currently recognized extant genera of Ceratopogonidae. In the Neotropical region, Borkent and Spinelli (2007) recorded 266 species and Spinelli et al. (2007) described another species from Brazilian Amazonia. Seventy of these species are miserable pests of humans and domestic animals and seven of them serve as vectors of a variety of diseases, summarized by Borkent and Spinelli (2007).

There is no reliable, modern key to the subgenera and species groups of neotropical Culicoides. The only review of the genus for the region is the monography by Forattini (1957), but due to the numerous descriptions of new species and nomenclatorial actions by subsequent authors, this revision has not been updated. The easiest guide to species identification is that of Wirth et al. (1988), in which some meristic characters states and photographs of wings are provided. From there readers may refer to keys to subgenera or species groups, or species lists referred to local revisions from Panama (Wirth & Blanton 1959), Amazon Basin (Wirth & Blanton 1973), the Caribbean (Wirth & Blanton 1974), Trinidad and Tobago (Aitken et al. 1975), Florida, USA (Blanton & Wirth 1979), Colombia (Barreto 1986), South Amazon Basin (Spinelli & Wirth 1986), Argentina (Spinelli et al. 2005) and Costa Rica (Spinelli & Borkent 2004), among others.

In his catalog of the Culicoides from Colombia, Barreto (1986) recorded 88 species, and since then 14 species have to be added for a total of 102 Culicoides species presently known from Colombia. Although this is a relatively large number of species, at present their sanitary importance in Colombia appear to be restricted to the annoyance caused by the female biting habits. None of the recorded species has been irrefutably incriminated as a vector of pathogens, only Culicoides insignis Lutz is suspected to be involved in the transmissión of the bluetongue virus and the haemorragic fever virus to cattle (Homan et al. 1985), and Culicoides insinuatus Ortiz in the transmission of the filaroid Mansonella ozzardi to man (Tidwell & Tidwell 1982).

A recent study of the collections of Culicoides from the Museo de La Plata, in La Plata, Argentina, and the Instituto Nacional de Salud, in Bogotá, Colombia, revealed the presence of five new species and an additional seven species not recorded yet to Colombia. The purpose of this paper is to provide the descriptions and records of this material, as well as an updated list of the 114 species inhabiting the country with their corresponding distribution. This list includes 66 species not formally recorded and expected to be discovered in Colombia.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

All specimens, mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam, were examined and measured with a binocular compound microscope at 40-400X and drawings of certain diagnostic characters were prepared with an attached camera lucida. Wing photographs were taken with a Pentax Optio S 40, digital camera through a Leitz Wetzlar SM-LUX, binocular microscope.

Terms for structures follow those used in the Manual of Nearctic Diptera (McAlpine et al. 1981). Wing veins follow the system of the Manual of Nearctic Diptera, with modifications proposed by Szadziewski (1996). Names of veins are always in upper case and those of cells in lower case. Pale areas in cell r3 posterior to or immediately distal to the 2nd radial cell are called poststigmatic pale spots. Ratios used follow Spinelli et al. (1993).

Specimens were deposited, as noted, in the collections of the Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia (INS), and the Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina (MLP).

Culicoides (Hoffmania) antioquiensis sp. n.,

(Figs 1-5, 11, 25)

 


 

 



 

 



 

 





 

Diagnosis: Only species in the hylas group with slender third palpal segment, apices of veins M1, M2 broadly pale, apex of CuA1 with small pale spot and apex of CuA2 dark, spermathecae without sclerotized necks, male tergite 9 with a distinct distal notch, gonostylus with subapical tooth and with V-shaped base of the separate portion of parameres.

Male: Similar to female with usual sexual differences. Wing length 1.19 mm; width 0.41 mm; CR 0.65. Genitalia (Fig. 1): tergite 9 somewhat truncated, distinctly notched posteromedially, cerci pointed; sternite 9 with with shallow posteromedial excavation. Gonocoxite 2.4 times longer than broad; gonostylus yellow, slightly shorter than gonocoxite, nearly straight, with suabapical tooth, tip pointed. Parameres (Fig. 2) stout, broadly fused at base, fused portion 1.5 broader than long; separate portion V-shaped at base, each abruptly tapering to terminal filament with very fine fringing hairs distally. Aedeagus triangular, 1.7 times longer than broad, progressively tapering, slender straight distal portion 0.22 times longer than total aedeagus length, apex with rounded papilla.

Female: head dark brown. Eyes (Fig. 11) bare, contiguous by distance equal to diameter of two ommatidia. Flagellum (Fig. 3) brown, bases of flagellomeres pale; AR 1.00; sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1, 9-13. Palpus (Fig. 4) dark brown; third segment cylindrical, slender, sensilla scattered on surface; PR 4.15; P/H ratio 1.23. Mandible with 22 teeth. Scutum dak brown, with sublateral yellowish brown patches; scutellum, postscutellum dark brown. Legs dark brown; foreknee blackish with narrow pale ring on each side; midknee broadly yellowish on each side of joint; hindfemur dark to tip, hindtibia with narrow basal and apical pale rings; hind tibial comb with seven spines, second from spur longest. Wing (Fig. 25) length 1.40 mm; width 0.60 mm; CR 0.67; with contrasting pattern; pale spot over crossvein r-m abutting wing margin; second radial cell in pale spot; r3 with elongate pale spot anterior to base of M1, distal pale spot in r3 transverse, reniform, barely abutting wing margin; M2 straddled by pale spot nearly its midlength; distal pale spot in m1 broadly separated from wing margin; distal pale spot in m2 rounded, broadly abutting wing margin; pale spot in cua1 small, narrowly connected with narrow pale line bordering lower margin of CuA1; anal cell with two basal, two distal pale spots; apices of M1, M2 broadly pale, apex of CuA1 with small pale spot, apex of CuA2 dark; pale spot posterior to medial fork broadly connected with pale spot lying anterior to cubital fork. Macrotrichia sparce on distal half of wing, extending nearly to base of anal cell. Halter pale.Abdomen dark brown. Two ovoid, unequal spermathecae without sclerotized necks (Fig. 5), measuring 57 by 45 µ, and 46 by 39 µ; rudimentary third, ring present.

Distribution - Colombia; known only from the type-locality.

Type data and depository - Holotype male, allotype female, Colombia, Antioquia, near Rio Anori, tropic rain forest, IX-1970, DG Young, black light trap (MLP).

Taxonomic discussion - Culicoides antioquiensis sp. n.

is a member of the hylas group of the subgenus Hoffmania Fox. This new species keys out in Wirth and Blanton (1968) to couplet 3 where is distinguished from Culicoides heliconiae Fox and Hoffman by the dark apex of vein CuA2 and from Culicoides palpalis Macfie by the small pale area in the apex of vein CuA1.

The male is very similar to C. palpalis, but in the latter species the tergite IX bears a very small, papilliform caudomedian process, the gonostylus lacks the subapical tooth and the base of the separate portion of parameres is rounded. The female of C. palpalis differs from the new species by the spermathecae with short and slender necks, by the distal pale area in cell r3 broadly abutting wing margin and by the large pale spot in cua1, broadly connected with the pale line bordering lower margin of CuA1.

The wing pattern of C. antioquiensis is similar to the one of Culicoides hylas, but the later species has dark mid knee and the third palpal segment bears an irregular sensory pit. The male of C. hylas has a small papilliform on posterior margin of tergite 9 and the fused proximal portion of the parameres is nearly as broad as long.

Etymology - The name of this species refers to Antioquia, the Department of the type-locality.

Culicoides (Cotocripus) gabrieli sp. n.

(Figs 6-10, 12, 13)

Diagnosis: Only species in the subgenus Cotocripus Bréthes with narrowly separated eyes, five distal elongated flagellomeres, sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,5-8, wing with pale areas nearly indistinguishable with macrotrichia very sparce on distal half, male sternite 9 with narrow notch, aedeagus triangular and distal portion of parameres slender without ventral lobe.

Male: Similar to female with usual sexual differences. Palpus (Fig. 8) brown, third segment swollen, with deep sensory pit opening by small pore. Wing length 0.77 (0.74-0.80, n = 2) mm; width 0.29 (0.28-0.30, n = 2) mm; CR 0.54 (n = 2). Genitalia (Fig. 6): tergite 9 subquadrangular, distal margin convex, slender, apicolateral processes slender, subparallel, cerci elongate; sternite 9 with medial, narrow notch. Gonocoxite stout, 1.45 times longer than broad, ventral root stout, dorsal root slender, curved; gonostylus 1.2 times longer than gonocoxite, broad basally, distal portion slender, nearly straight. Parameres (Fig. 7) separate, each with scleotized basal knob, basal portion slender directed posteromesally, distal portion slender, sinuate, without ventral lobe, tapering to fine point without lateral barbs. Aedeagus triangular, lateral arms strongly sclerotized; basal arch rounded, extending 0.33 of total lentgh; distal portion with lateral pair of pointed processes, tapering to blunt tip.

Female: head dark brown. Eyes (Fig. 12) very narrowly separated, with numerous interommatidial spinules. Flagellum (Fig. 9) uniformly dark brown; flagellomeres 2-8 short, vasiform, 9-13 subcylindrical; AR 1.30; sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1, 5-8. Palpus brown; segments 3-5 missing; P/H ratio 0.58. Mandible with 14 teeth. Thorax uniformly dark brown. Legs dark brown; forefemur with faint subapical pale rings: fore, hind tibiae with subbasal pale rings; hind tibial comb with four spines, one nearest spur longest. Wing (Fig. 26) length 0.80 mm; width 0.38 mm; CR 0.65; with pale areas very much reduced, nearly indistinguishable over r-m crossvein, poststigmatic area in r3, distally in, m1, m2, cua1, anal cell. Macrotrichia very sparce, scattered on distal half of wing. Halter brown. Abdomen brown. Two pyriform, subeaqual spermathecae with sclerotized long necks (Fig. 10), each measuring 36 by 29 µ, neck 14 µ; rudimentary third, ring present.

Distribution - Colombia (Chocó), Peru (Cuzco).

Type data and depository - Holotype male, Peru, Cuzco, Kirigueti, 24-II-2004, J. Williams, at light (MLP); allotype female, Colombia, Chocó, Pié de Pepe, VI-1979, Cavelier, light trap (INS). Paratype, 1 male, same data as holotype (INS).

Taxonomic discussion - C. gabrieli sp. n. is a member of the subgenus Cotocripus Brèthes. There is no available revision of the subgenus for the Neotropics, and according to Borkent and Spinelli (2007) five species are recognized in the region: Culicoides bambusicola Lutz, Culicoides caridei (Brèthes), Culicoides irwini Spinelli and Wirth, Culicoides patagoniensis Ronderos and Spinelli, and Culicoides raposoensis Wirth and Barreto. The wing pattern of C. gabrieli sp. n. is very similar to C. caridei and C. patagoniensis, very similar species from Southern South America. However, the female of these species shows well separated eyes, distinctly shorter flagellomeres 9-13 and the flagellomeres 11-13 bear sensilla coeloconica.

The male genitalia of both species is also different, with the apicolateral processes of tergite 9 stouter, the sternites 9 lacking mesal notch, the aedeagus Y-shaped and shorter distal portion of parameres.

The male genitalia of C. bambusicola, a species inhabiting Eastern Brazil and Argentina, and Colombia and Venezuela, is similar to the one of C. gabrieli sp. n.

Nevertheless, the sternite 9 lacks the mesal notch and has stouter parameres. Regarding the female, the wing of C. bambusicola exhibits a distal rounded pale area in cell r3.

Culicoides raposoensis, a species also inhabiting Colombia, differs from C. gabrieli sp.n. by the cell r3 with a distal pale spot abutting wing margin, by the pale apex of the hindtibia, and by the male genitalia with parameres with well developed ventral lobe and aedeagus lacking lateral pointed processes.

Etymology - We are pleased to name this species after the Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez, in recognition of his monumental literary work, the delight of several generations of readers around the World.

Culicoides (Anilomyia) inermis sp. n.

(Figs 13, 16-18, 27)

Diagnosis: Only species in the decor group with sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,5-8 and unarmed mandibles.

Male: unknown.

Female: head brown. Eyes (Fig. 13) bare, very narrowly contiguous. Flagellum (Fig. 16) uniformly brown; AR 0.91 (0.85-1.07, n = 2); sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,5-8. Palpus (Fig. 17) brown; third segment slightly swollen distally, with apical sensory pit; segments 4-5 absent, only a minute stump bearing seta posterior to third segment in holotype; PR 1.60 (n = 2); P/H ratio 0.33 (0.30-0.36, n = 2). Mandible without teeth. Thorax brown, scutum without definite pattern; postscutellum with transversal mesal dark brown patch. Legs brown; femora with faint subapical pale rings; tibiae with subbasal pale rings; hind tibial comb with seven spines, second from spur longest. Wing (Fig. 27) length 1.11 (1.06-1.16, n = 2) mm; width 0.48 (0.46-0.50, n = 2) mm; CR 0.62 (n = 2); predominantly pale, second radial cell in pale spot; three main transversal moderately dark areas extending from costa to distal wing margin: proximal one anterior to crossvein r-m, middle one from distal 1/4 of 1st radial cell, distal one from midportion of r3; apices of r3, M2 moderately dark. Macrotrichia scarce on distal fourth of wing, only few marginal in m2, cua1. Halter pale. Abdomen brown. Two ovoid spermathecae with sclerotized necks (Fig. 18), measuring 42 (40-44, n = 2) by 32 (31-33, n = 2) µ, neck 5 µ, and 39 (37-41, n = 2) by 29 (28-30, n = 2) µ, neck 4 µ; rudimentary third, ring present.

Distribution - Colombia, known only from the type-locality.

Type data and depository - Holotype female, Colombia, Valle, Rio Raposo, V-1965, VH Lee, light trap (MLP). Partype female, same data except VII-1965 (INS).

Taxonomic discussion - C. inermis sp. n. belongs in the decor species group of the subgenus Anilomyia, reviewed by for the Neotropics by Wirth and Blanton (1970). The antennal sensillar pattern 1,5-8 is unique in the subgenus.The wing pattern is nearly identical to Culicoides decor (Williston). However, apart from the different distribution of sensilla coeloconica whithin flagellomeres, C. inermis sp. n. is easily distinguished from C. decor by the shorter proboscis (P/H ratio 0.85 in C. decor), unarmed mandibles (armed in C. decor) and by the maxillary palpus bearing only three well developed segments, with apical sensory pit in the third segment (with 5 developed segments in C. decor). These extra alar characteristics also distinguish C. inermis from other species in the group, all of them with palpus 5-segmented, armed mandibles and P/H ratio ranging from 0.68-0.94.

Etymology - This species is named inermis referring the unarmed mandibles.

Culicoides micayensis sp. n.

(eublepharus group) (Figs 20-24)

Diagnosis: Only species in the eublepharus group with sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,(6) 8-12, 3rd palpal segment swollen at midlength with distal open sensory area, wing with only moderately distinct pattern of pale spots and with one spermatheca.

Male: unknown.

Female: head dark brown. Eyes (Fig. 14) with interommatidial spicules, very narrowly separated. Flagellum (Fig. 21) uniformly brown; flagellomeres 2-8 vasiform, subequal, 9-13 subcylindrical, elongate; AR 1.23 (1.18-1.28, n = 2); sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,(6) 8-12. Palpus (Fig. 20) brown; third segment swollen at midlength, distal half with open sensory area on irregular concavity; PR 1.70 (n = 2); P/H ratio 0.89 (0.86-0.92, n = 2). Mandible with 20 teeth. Thorax brown; scutum with admedian longitudinal, narrow, slightly paler patches. Legs brown; forefemur with subapical, faint pale ring; tibiae with subbasal pale rings; hind tibial comb with four spines, one nearest spur longest. Wing (Fig. 28) length 0.95 (0.94-0.96, n = 2) mm; width 0.47 (0.46-0.48, n = 2) mm; CR 0.65 (n = 2); brownish infuscated, with only moderately distinct pattern of pale spots; second radial cell in dark spot; pale spot over crossvein r-m small, barely abutting wing margin; poststigmatic pale spot in r3 lying slightly obliquely, distal pale spot in r3 transverse, not abutting wing margin or M1; two pa le spots in m1, distal one well separated from wing margin; m2, cua1, anal cell with distal, rounded pale spots abutting wing margin. Macrotrichia present on distal half of wing, few in cua1, anal cell, reaching in one row to base of m2. Halter brownish. Abdomen dark brown. One pyriform, partially collapsed spermathecae with sclerotized neck (Fig. 19), measuring 42 by 34 µ, neck 7 µ; rudimentary sperma-theca, ring present.

Distribution - Colombia, known only from the type-locality.

Type data and depository - Holotype female, Colombia, Cauca, López, Rio Micay, 16-V-1977, MA. Tidwell (MLP). Paratype female, same data except 16-V-1977 (INS).

Taxonomic discussion - C. micayensis sp. n. is a member of the eublepharus group and unplaced to subgenus. The following four species of the eublepharus group also have one spermathecae: Culicoides archboldi Wirth and Blanton, Culicoides eublepharus Macfie, Culicoides guadeloupensis Floch and Abonnenc and Culicoides rangeli Ortiz and Mirsa. Of these the most similar is

C. archboldi, but it is readily distinguished from C. micayensis by the sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,9-12, by the absence of pale spots in cells m1, m2, cua1, and anal cell, and by the long and coarse macrotrichia covering most of wing, reaching in two rows to base of cell m2. The wing pattern of C. micayensis sp. n. is similar to the one of C. tamboensis, but the later species has two well developed spermathecae and bears sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1,9 -12

Etymology - The name of this species refers to Rio Micay, the type-locality.

Culicoides nigrifemur sp. n. (covagarciai group)

(Figs 22-24)

Diagnosis: Only species in the covagarciai species group with third palpal segment slender, head and proboscis equal in length, and entirely dark hindfemur.

Male: unknown.

Female: head dark brown. Eyes (Fig. 15) bare, contiguous by distance equal to diameter of two ommatidia. Flagellum (Fig. 26) with flagellomeres 1-8 pale brown, 9-13 darker; AR 1.00; sensilla coeloconica on flagellomeres 1, 9-13. Palpus (Fig. 23) dark brown; 3rd segment slender, with irregular sensory pit; PR 4.30; P/H ratio 1.00. Mandible with 23 teeth. Thorax dark brown. Scutum apparently with mesal pale brown patch; scutellum, postscutellum dark brown. Fore and midlegs dark brown, with knees broadly pale yellow; hindfemur dark to tip, hindtibia pale yellow with mesal broad ring; hind tibial comb with six spines, second from spur longest. Wing (Fig. 29) length 2.26 mm; width 1.04 mm; CR 0.67; with contrasting pattern; pale spot over crossvein r-m broadly abutting wing margin; second radial cell in pale spot; distal pale spot in r3 transverse, brodly abutting wing margin; M2 straddled by pale spot nearly its midlength; distal pale spot in m1 somewhat elongate, broadly separated from wing margin; distal pale spot in m2 rounded, broadly abutting wing margin; pale spot in cua1 large, rounded, broadly abutting wing margin; anal cell with two distal pale spots; apices of M1, M2, CuA1, CuA2 dark; pale spot posterior to medial fork connected with pale spot lying anterior to cubital fork. Macrotrichia sparce on distal half of wing, absent in cua1, anal cell. Halter brown. Abdomen dark brown. Two ovoid, slightly unequal spermathecae with short necks (Fig. 24), measuring 62 by 48 µ, and 56 by 46 µ; rudimentary third, ring present.

Distribution - Colombia, known only from the type-locality.

Type data and depository - Holotype female, Colombia, Cauca, Páramo de Puracé, 28.4 km E Puracé, 3100 m, 18-II-1965, VH Lee, light trap (MLP).

Taxonomic discussion - C. nigrifemur sp. n. belongs in the covagarciai group of the subgenus Anilomyia, and is readily distinguished from the species included in that group by the entirely dark brown hindfemur and by the equal length of head and proboscis. Wirth and Blanton (1956d) reviewed the Culicoides covagarciai Ortíz species group for the Neotropics, and this new species keys out to Culicoides marshi Wirth and Blanton in couplet 2, with the exception that the proboscis of C. marshi is longer than its head. Besides that, the eyes are broadly contiguous in C. marshi, and only separated by two ommatidia in C. nigrifemur sp. n. The wing pattern of C. nigrifemur is nearly identical to the one of C. covagarciai, but apart from the different length of proboscis and legs coloration, C. covargaciai is easily distinguished from C. nigrifemur sp. n. by its swollen third palpal segment.

Etymology - This species is named nigrifemur referring the uniformly dark coloration of the hindfemur.

New records from Colombia

Culicoides castillae Fox (fluvialis group)

C. castillae Fox 1946: 251 (female; Honduras); Forattini 1957: 499; Wirth and Blanton 1959: 416 (redesc.; synonymy; Panama; distr.); Wirth 1974: 29 (in catalog south to the USA); Wirth et al. 1988: 44 (numerical characters; wing photo; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 64 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 39 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 72 (in neotropical catalog).

Culicoides gibsoni Wirth 1952: 246 (female; Guatemala); Wirth 1955: 111 (male, redesc. female; Guatemala).

Culicoides flochabonnenci Ortiz and Mirsa 1952: 267 (female; Venezuela); Ortiz 1953: 801 (in key); Ortiz and León 1955: 574 (male, redesc. female; Ecuador).

Distribution - Guatemala to Ecuador, Venezuela, Trinidad.

New records - Colombia, Caquetá, Solano, 30-III-1972, CJ Marinkelle, 1 female, light trap (INS); Boyacá, Pauna, Topo Grande, 29-VI-2006, M Suárez, 1 female, CDC + CO2 (INS).

Culicoides (Hoffmania) coutinhoi Barretto

C. coutinhoi Barretto 1944: 96 (male; Brazil); Barbosa 1947: 13 (notes); Ortiz 1950: 449 (notes); Wirth and Blanton 1956a: 314 (female, male redesc.; French Guiana); Forattini 1957: 239 (erroneous synonym of lutzi); Wirth 1974: 24 (in catalog south to the USA); Spinelli and Wirth 1986: 52 (in key; wing photo); Wirth et al. 1988: 14 (numerical characters; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 65 (in world catalog); Spinelli et al. 1993: 28 (redesc.; distr.); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 33 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 68 (in neotropical catalog).

Distribution - Colombia, French Guiana, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, São Paulo).

New record - Colombia, Caquetá, San Vicente del Caguan, Tres Esquinas, 3-XII-1973, MF Suárez, 1 male (INS).

Note - The genitalia and the wing pattern of the specimen here recorded are identical to the ones described and illustrated in the original decription by Barretto (1944), as well as in the redescription by Spinelli et al. (1993). The only difference is the halter coloration, but as it was pointed out by Spinelli et al. (1993) this could be a variable character.

Culicoides (Haematomyidium) filiductus Wirth

C. filiductus Wirth, in Vitale et al. 1981: 155 (pupa, male, femle; Panama); Wirth et al. 1988: 48 (numerical characters; wing photo; distr.); Wirth and Felippe-Bauer 1989: 559 (redesc.; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 67 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 32 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 66 (in neotropical catalog).

Distribution - Belize to Colombia.

New record - Colombia, Amazonas, Leticia, II-1987, DG Young, 1 female, biting human (INS).

Culicoides (Haematomyidium) germanus Macfie

C. germanus Macfie 1940: 27 (female; Guyana); Wirth and Blanton 1956b: 188 (type redesc.; notes); Forattini 1957: 381; Wirth 1974: 31 (in catalog south to the USA); Vitale et al. 1981: 148 (in key debilipalpis group); Wirth et al. 1988: 48 (numerical characters; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 69 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 32 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 66 (in neotropical catalog).

Distribution - Costa Rica, Colombia, Guyana.

New record - Colombia, Tolima, Melgar, El Aguila, 19-II-1980, E Martínez, 1 female, biting human (INS).

Culicoides leoni Barbosa (leoni group)

C. leoni Barbosa 1952: 17 (female; Ecuador); Wirth and Blanton 1956c: 46 (male, female redesc.); Forattini 1957: 488; Wirth 1974: 33 (in catalog south to the USA); Wirth et al. 1988: 52 (numerical characters; wing photo; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 73 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 39 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 73 (in neotropical catalog).

Distribution - Colombia, Ecuador.

New records - Colombia, Boyacá, Pauna, Topo Grande, 29-VI-2006, M Suárez, 1 female, CDC + CO2 (INS); Boyacá, Pauna, Aguasal, XII-2005, L Cuellar, 1 female, biting human (INS).

Culicoides (Diphaomyia) mirsae Ortiz

C. mirsae Ortiz 1953: 801 (female; Venezuela); Forattini 1957: 497; Wirth and Blanton 1959: 446 (redesc.; Panama; distr.); Wirth 1974: 34 (in catalog south to the USA); Wirth et al. 1988: 32 (numerical characters; wing photo; distr.); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 74 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 30 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 65 (in neotropical catalog).

 

TABLE

 

Distribution - Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Trinidad.

New records - Colombia, Boyacá, Otanche, Corta-deral, 10-I-2006, Y Sosa, 1 female, biting human (INS).

Culicoides (Hoffmania) plaumanni Spinelli

C. plaumanni Spinelli, in Spinelli et al. 1993: 69 (female; Argentina); Spinelli and Wirth 1993: 35 (in list Argentina); Spinelli 1998: 325 (in list Argentina); Spinelli et al. 2005: 139 (in key Argentina); Borkent and Wirth 1997: 79 (in world catalog); Borkent and Spinelli 2000: 34 (in catalog south to the USA); Borkent and Spinelli 2007: 69 (in neotropical catalog); Felippe-Bauer et al. 2008: 36 (records Peru).

Distribution - Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas), Northeastern Argentina.

New records - Colombia, Meta, Villavicencio, El Buque, IV-1978, MF Suárez, 1 female, Shannon trap (INS).

 

REFERENCES

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Barbosa FAS 1947. Culicoides (Diptera: Heleidae) da região neotropical. Ann Soc Biol Pernambuco 7: 3-30.

Barbosa FAS 1952. Novos subsídios para o conhecimento dos Culicoides neotrópicos (Diptera: Heleidae). Thesis, Univ. Recife, Imprensa Industrial, Recife, 21 pp.

Barreto MD 1986. Catálogo de los Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) de Colombia. Colombia Méd 17: 140-150.

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Received 20 August 2008
Accepted 23 December 2008

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