MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 98(2) March 2003
PAGES: 233-240 DOI: Full paper
The Type Specimens of Chewing Lice (Insecta, Mallophaga) Deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Margareth Cardozo-de-Almeida +, Pedro Marcos LinardiI ++, Jane CostaII

Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmanioses
IDepartamento de Parasitologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
IINúcleo de Informatização da Coleção Entomológica, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Abstract

This paper presents a list of 131 Mallophaga type specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. It includes 69 holotypes, 62 allotypes, 683 paratypes, 1 syntype and 2 neoparatypes, distributed among 6 families and 35 genera. The types are listed with their respective data and literature.

The Werneck Collection derives from field captures undertaken by Fabio Leoni Werneck, and also by other researchers, from 1888 to 1960, in Brazil (14 states), and in other countries (51 countries, and three islands). The Werneck Collection also includes specimens donated to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) in Rio de Janeiro by several other institutions from Brazil and abroad. In 1961, this collection was closed after the death of this dedicated researcher, being thereafter referred as a historical collection. The Werneck Collection includes insects of medical and veterinary importance such as Mallophaga, Anoplura, Siphonaptera and Hemiptera.

The present work represents the continuation of an ongoing effort to review and update the information available in the insect collections maintained at the Entomology Department of the IOC-Fiocruz. Recently, a list including 34 type specimens of sucking lice (Anoplura) also from the Werneck Collection was published, contributing to the recognition of its importance and helping to make available this rich source of scientific information (Cardozo-de-Almeida et al. 1999).

The Werneck Collection is part of the Entomological Collection (EC) of IOC, which is one of the largest and most expressive in Latin America with, nowadays, approximately 2 million specimens. Several other historical collections are part of the EC, which also includes a "general collection" representing all the insect orders. Following the guidelines prescribed by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, different authors have published lists of the type specimens included in the EC of IOC: Gonçalves et al. (1993), Marchon-Silva et al. (1996), Ferraz (1997), Cardozo-de-Almeida et al. (1999) and Felippe-Bauer and Oliveira (2001). Entomological collections are indispensable for the modern taxonomy, since the study of the comparative characters has been considering the starting point to new scientific investigations (Martins 1983).

The Werneck Collection is represented by 4,069 slides deposited in 136 wood slide-boxes containing 30 slides each. Records of this material are kept in 9 protocol-books, and archives (which include 5,285 index-cards) with information such as: locality, date, host species identification, record number, sex, slide number, collector identification, number of samples per slide, and the louse species identification. There are also several unidentified specimens kept in 373 flasks.

The Mallophaga specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection are preserved in 2,823 slides representing 369 species of 73 genera. These include 131 type species (69 holotypes and 62 allotypes), and 683 paratypes, 1 syntype and 2 neoparatypes, distributed among 35 genera, a total of 817 type specimens.

Lyal (1985), based on cladistic analysis of the characters, presented a classification with these two groups of lice (Mallophaga and Anoplura) included in a single order Phthiraptera, comprising four sub-orders: Anoplura, Rhynchophthirina, Ischnocera, and Amblycera. However, because other phylogenetic analyses did not reach the same conclusion (Kim & Ludwig 1978, Kim 1988), Mallophaga is here considered as an insect order. A list of 131 Mallophaga type specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection is presented in this current paper. The methodology here applied was the same of Cardozo-de-Almeida et al. (1999). Main synonymies are indicated in the text. Other synonymies for chewing lice can be found in Hopkins (1949). Mammal taxonomy follows that presen-ted by Wilson and Reeder (1993), also available by Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in web (www.nmnh.si.edu/msw). For birds, the specific names are in accordance with informations available at http://birdingonthe.net/ as Sibley and Monroe world list of birds. A list of host synonymy is also presented after the Mallophaga type specimens.

The chewing lice are small wingless insects, ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Because they go through all their biological cycle among the fur and feathers of their hosts, most Mallophaga have developed a high level of specificity to them (Linardi 2001). So, such as Anoplura, they are of fundamental importance to studies on co-evolution with their respective hosts (Hopkins 1949, Vanzolini & Guimarães 1955, Barker 1994).

Their chewing buccal apparatus is adapted to triturate feathers, epidermic scales and fur. Some species can also eventually ingest blood flowing due to some host skin damage.

The chewing lice, that parasitize birds, are in general more harmful, mainly the ones living on domestic birds. The effects of the chewing lice can be reflected in the decrease of productivity of their hosts. In mammals, the constant bites in high infestations cause damage to the skin leading to wounds. One species, Trichodectes canis, is incriminated as the intermediary host of the Dipylidium caninum.

 

Family Boopiidae

Genus Boopia Piaget, 1880

dubia Werneck & Thompson, 1940. Boopia. (1039) Paratypes 1 male (3456) and 1 female (3455);Lasiorhinus latifrons; Blanchetown, Australia.

mjöbergi Werneck & Thompson, 1940. Boopia.(784) Paratype 1 female (3459); Macropus major; Victoria, Australia.

phanerocerata Harrison & Johnston, 1916. Boopia. (730) Paratypes 1 male (3458) and 1 female (3457);Perameles nasuta; Sidney, Australia; VI-1911.

Genus Paraboopia Werneck & Thompson, 1940

flava Werneck & Thompson, 1940. Paraboopia. (1101) Paratypes 1 male (3462) and 1 female (3461);Osphranter robustus; Scone, Australia; 18-VII-1925.

 

Family Gyropidae

Genus Abrocomophaga Emerson & Price, 1976

chilensis Emerson and Price, 1976. Abrocomophaga. Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (4063); Abrocoma bennetti; Santiago, Chile; 2-XI-1974.

Genus Gliricola Mjöberg, 1910

aequatorialis Werneck, 1948. Gliricola. (2682) Paratypes 1 male (3330) and 1 female (3329); Proechimys brevicauda;Jatun Yacu, Oriente, Equator; Clarke-Macintyre coll.

brasiliensis Werneck, 1934. Gliricola. (512) Holotype 1 female (997). Allotype 1 male (1000). Paratypes 4 males (999, 1001-1003) and 2 females (996, 998); Cavia porcellus;Pedreiras, São Paulo, Brazil; F Fonseca coll., 21-VIII-1933.

calcaratus Werneck, 1937. Gliricola. (940) Holotype 1 male (2037). Allotype 1 female (2038). Paratypes 2 males (2039, 2040), 5 females (2041-2045) and 2 nymphs (2046, 2047); Proechimys oris;River Acará, Pará, Brazil.

capromydis armatus Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (1732) Paratypes 1 male (2847), 2 females (2845, 2846) and 2 nymphs (2848, 2849); Capromys prehensilis;San Diego de los Baños, Cuba; Ferris coll.

capromydis capromydis Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (2202) Paratypes 15 males (2840-2842, 2843, 2844), 8 females (2837-2839, 2843, 2844) and 2 nymphs (2844); Capromys pilorides;Camaguey, Cuba; WM Mann coll.

columbanus Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (1729) Holotype 1 male (2834); Proechimys mincae;Minca, Colombia; Ferris coll.

cubanus Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (1731) Holotype 1 male (2857). Allotype 1 female (2857). Paratype 1 male (2858); Capromys pilorides;Camaguey, Cuba; Ferris coll.

decurtatus maculatus Werneck, 1942. Gliricola. (1557) Holotype 1 female (2736). Allotype 1 male (2739). Paratypes 2 males (2740, 2741) and 2 females (2737, 2738); Proechimys iheringi;Caixa D'Água Forest, Santa Tereza, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

decurtatus marajoensis Werneck, 1942. Gliricola. (935) Holotype 1 female (2054). Allotype 1 male (2056). Paratype 1 male (2055); Loncheres armatus; Pará, Brazil.

decurtatus paraensis Werneck, 1942. Gliricola. (951) Holotype 1 female (2057). Allotype 1 male (2060) Paratypes 2 males (2058, 2059); Loncheres grandis; Monte Alegre, Pará, Brazil.

echimydis Werneck, 1933. Gliricola. (344) Holotype 1 female (698). Allotype 1 male (699). Paratypes 7 females (700-702, 704, 705); Echimys cayennensis;Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; L Travassos coll.

ewingi Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (1733) Holotype 1 male (2860). Allotype 1 female (2859); Capromys prehensilis;San Diego de los Baños, Cuba; Ferris coll.

fonsecai Werneck, 1933. Gliricola. (65) Holotype 1 female (284). Allotype 1 male (290). Paratypes 4 males (288, 289, 291) and 12 females (283, 286, 287, 293 a 299); Nelomys sp.;Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil; F Fonseca coll. Synonym of Gliricola decurtatus fonsecai Werneck, 1942.

humilis Werneck, 1951. Gliricola. (2823) Holotype 1 male (3524). Allotype 1 female (3523). Paratypes 2 males (3525, 3526); Proechimys albispinus albispinus;"Maco" Seco, Andaraí, Bahia, Brazil; J Moojen coll.

lindolphoi Werneck, 1942. Gliricola. (1524) Holotype 1 male (2721); Cavia aperea;Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil; LR Guimarães coll., 06-I-1937.

mendezi Emerson & Price, 1975 Gliricola. Paratypes 2 females (4062); Proechimys semispinosus;Capibara, Amazonas, Venezuela; 09-VI-1967.

mesomydis Werneck, 1933. Gliricola. (337) Holotype 1 female (679). Allotype 1 male (680). Paratypes 4 males (688-691) and 7 females (681-687); Euryzygomatomys spinosus catellus;Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil; F Fonseca coll.

mirandai Werneck, 1935. Gliricola. (788) Holotype 1 male (1419). Allotype 1 female (1420). Paratype 1 female (1421); Isothrix bistriatus; River Manoel Correia, Porto Bicentenário, Mato Grosso, Brazil; C Rondon coll., 12-II-1935.

o'mahonyi Werneck, 1951. Gliricola. (2824) Paratypes 3 males (3527, 3528), 1 female (3527) and 1 nymph (3528); Geocapromys ingrahami;Bahamas; E O'Mahony coll., 17-II-1948.

panamensis Werneck, 1944. Gliricola. (1734) Allotype 1 female (2835). Paratypes 1 male (2835) and 2 females (2836); Sigmodon hispidus chiriquensis;Campo Pital, Chiriqui, Panama; LH Dunn coll., VII-1929.

pintoi Werneck, 1935. Gliricola. (759) Holotype 1 female (1295). Allotype 1 male (1296); Hapale santaremensis;River Tapajoz, Pará, Brazil; 02-IV-1934.

spinosus Werneck, 1942. Gliricola. (1547) Holotype 1 male (2725). Allotype 1 female (2722). Paratypes 3 males (2726-2728) and 2 females (2723, 2724); Cavia aperea;Santo Amaro, São Paulo, Brazil; LR Guimarães coll., 06-I-1937.

tiptoni Emerson & Price, 1975 Gliricola. Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (4061); Proechimys semispinosus;El Dividivi, Valera, Trujillo, Venezuela; 13-IX-1965.

vogelsangi Werneck, 1951. Gliricola. (2795) Holotype 1 male (3508). Allotype 1 female (3511). Paratypes 2 males (3509, 3510) and 2 females (3512, 3513); Proechimys trinitatis;Caripito, Monagas, Venezuela; EG Vogelsang coll.

Genus Gyropus Nitzsch, 1818

cercomydis Werneck, 1942. Gyropus. (1383) Holotype 1 male (2667). Allotype 1 female (2668). Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (flask 209); Cercomys laurentis; Chique-Chique, Bahia, Brazil.

cruzi Werneck, 1933. Tetragyropus. (72) Holotype 1 female (319). Allotype 1 male (330). Paratypes 7 males (327-329, 332-334), 13 females (315-318, 321-327) and 9 nymphs (335-343); Euryzygomatomys spinosus catellus; Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil; F Fonseca coll. Synonym of Gyropus cruzi Werneck, 1933.

freitasi Werneck, 1942. Gyropus. (1368) Holotype 1 male (2641). Allotype 1 female (2642). Paratypes 3 males (2643-2645); Cercomys cunicularis inermis; Serra do Ouro, Pacoti, Ceará, Brazil; 13-II-1941.

grypophallus Werneck, 1939. Gyropus. (363) Holotype 1 male (2227). Allotype 1 female (2223). Paratypes 3 males (2228-2230) and 3 females (2224-2226,); Ctenomys lewisi; Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia; FL Werneck coll., 11-X-1937. Synonym of Phtheiropoios ewingi (Eichler, 1939).

lenti distinctus Werneck, 1948. Gyropus. (1640) Holotype 1 male (2863). Allotype 1 female (2864). Paratypes 1 male (2867) and 2 females (2865, 2866); Cercomys cunicularis fosteri; Salobra, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Teixeira de Freitas coll.

lenti lenti Werneck, 1936. Gyropus. (884) Holotype 1 male (1941). Allotype 1 female (1945). Paratypes 3 males (1942-1944) and 1 female (1946); Cercomys laurentis; Ceará, Brazil; H Lent coll.

limai Werneck, 1948. Gyropus. (1654) Holotype 1 male (2934). Allotype 1 female (2935). Paratypes 3 males (2937-2940), 1 female (2936) and 2 nymphs (2941, 2942); Proechimys setosus; Fortuna, Bahia, Brazil; 13-I-1944.

martini iheringi Werneck, 1948. Gyropus. (1672) Holotype 1 male (2955). Allotype 1 female (2956). Paratypes 2 males (2959, 2960), 2 females (2957, 2958) and 4 genitalias of male (2964); Proechimys iheringi; Santa Tereza, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

martini martini Werneck, 1934. Tetragyropus. (507) Holotype 1 female (992). Allotype 1 male (994). Paratypes 2 males (993, 995), 3 females (989-991) and 1 nymph (1066); Proechimys albispinus; Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 1933. Synonym of Gyropus martini Werneck, 1934.

martini matthaeensis Werneck, 1948. Gyropus . (1669) Holotype 1 male (2986). Allotype 1 female (2987). Paratypes 2 males (2988, 2989) and 1 genitalia of male (2990); (wild rat); Ribeirão do Engano, São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brazil; L Travassos coll.

nematophallus Werneck, 1935. Gyropus. (779) Holotype 1 male (1383). Allotype 1 female (1381). Paratypes 5 nymphs (1384); Ctenomys luteolus; Abra Pampa, Jujuy, Argentina; 02-II-1935. Synonym ofPhtheiropoios nematopha-llus (Eichler, 1939).

parasetosus Werneck, 1935. Gyropus. (798) Holotype 1 male (1468). Allotype 1 female (1469). Paratypes 3 females (1471, 1472) and 14 nymphs (1473, 1474); Proechimys spinosus; Tapirapoan, Mato Grosso, Brazil; 1909.

ribeiroi Werneck, 1935. Gyropus. (799) Holotype 1 male (1475). Allotype 1 female (1476). Paratypes 10 males (1485-1494), 6 females (1478-1483) and 20 nymphs (1495, 1496) ; Scapteromys gnambiquarae; Campo Novo da Serra do Norte, Mato Grosso, Brazil; C Rondon coll.

scalaris Werneck, 1942. Gyropus. (1382) Holotype 1 male (2650). Allotype 1 female (2651). Paratypes 3 males (2655-2657) and 3 females (2652-2654); Cercomys laurentis; Chique-Chique, Bahia, Brazil.

thompsoni Werneck, 1935. Gyropus. (792) Holotype 1 female (1424) Allotype 1 male (1433). Paratypes 3 males (1435-1437), 7 females (1426-1432) and 7 nymphs (1438); Isothrix bistriatus; River Manoel Correia, Porto Bicentenário, Mato Grosso, Brazil; C Rondon coll.

travassosi Werneck, 1948. Gyropus. (1655) Holotype 1 male (2943). Allotype 1 female (2944). Paratypes 3 males (2947-2949), 2 females (2945, 2946), 1 genitalia of male (2950); Isothrix pictus; Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; 04-VIII-1944.

Genus Macrogyropus Ewing, 1924

amplexans longisetis Werneck, 1948. Macrogyropus. (947) Holotype 1 female (1994). Paratypes 1 female (1995) and 5 nymphs (1996-2000); Dasyprocta acouchy; Macapá, Amapá, Brazil.

costalimai Werneck, 1931. Heterogyropus. (32) Holotype 1 female (521). Allotype 1 male (32). Paratypes 1 male (529), 7 females (522-528) and 4 nymphs (530-533); Coelogenys paca; Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; FL Werneck coll. Synonym of Macrogyropus costalimai Werneck, 1931.

Genus Monothoracius Werneck, 1934

almeidai Werneck, 1937. Monothoracius. (983) Holotype 1 male (2112). Allotype 1 female (2113). Paratypes 2 males (2117, 2118) and 3 females (2114-2116); Dasyprocta acouchy; Cachoeira do Mel, River Cuminá, Pará, Brazil; RF d'Almeida coll., 15-IX-1936.

penidoi Werneck, 1934. Monothoracius. (534, 557) Holotype 1 male (1021). Allotype 1 female (1038). Paratype 1 nymph (1022); Kerodon rupestris; Lassance, Minas Gerais, Brazil; JCN Penido coll., VII-1933.

Genus Phtheiropoios Eichler, 1939

pearsoni Werneck, 1948. Phtheiropoios. (2678) Paratypes 1 male (3328) and 1 female (3327); Abrocoma cinerea; Caccachara, Peru; OP Pearson coll., 05-XII-1946.

 

Family Philopteridae

Genus Allobrueelia Eichler, 1951

amsel Eichler, 1952. Allobrueelia. (2929) Paratype 1 female (3629); Turdus merula; Germany.

Genus Brueelia Kéler, 1936

imponderabilica Eichler, 1954. Brueelia. (2936) Paratype 1 female (2936); Lanius excubitor; Germany.

jacobi Eichler, 1952. Brueelia.(3250) Paratypes 3 females (3748); Turdus merula merula; Germany; W Eichler coll.

Genus Columbicola Ewing, 1929

columbae juan-fernandez Eichler, 1952. Columbicola. (2767) Paratype 1 female (3470); Columba araucana; Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Synonym of Columbicola columbae columbae (L., 1758).

Genus Penenirmus Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938

campephili Eichler, 1953. Penenirmus.(2927) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (3627); Campephilus magellanicus; Chile.

Genus Struthiolipeurus Cummings, 1916

nandu Eichler, 1950. Struthiolipeurus. (2926) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (3626); Rhea americana; Zoological Garden of Halle, Germany.

 

Family Rallicolidae

Genus Rallicola Johnston & Harrison, 1911

parani Eichler, 1954. Rallicola.(3243) Paratypes 1 male (3738) and 1 female (3737); Gallinula chloropus galeata; Paraguay; W Eichler coll.

Genus Rhombiceps Eichler, 1952

mysigma Eichler, 1954. Rhombiceps. (3252) Paratypes 1 male (3750) and 1 female (3749); Recurvirostra andina; Bolivia; W Eichler coll.

 

Family Trichodectidae

Genus Bovicola Ewing, 1929

conectens Hopkins, 1943. Damalinia. (1584) Paratypes 2 males (2784, 2785), 3 females (2781-2783), 1 head of male (2786) and 1 genitalia of male (2787); Oreotragus oreotragus aureus; Loriu Hill, Jie County, Karamoja, Uganda; 28-II-1942. Synonym of Bovicola conectens Hopkins, 1943.

pelea Bedford, 1934. Bovicola. (693) Paratypes 2 females (3350, 3351); Pelea capreolus; Naauwpoort, Cape Province, South Africa ; 29-VII-1932.

sedecimdecembrii Eichler, 1946. Bovicola. (2939) Syntype 1 female (2939); Bison bonasus; Bialowieza Forest, Polonia; 1918.

zuluensis Werneck, 1950. Bovicola. (2723) Paratypes 2 males (3393, 3394), 3 females (3389-3391), 1 abdome of male (3395), 1 abdome of female (3392) and 2 genitalias of male (3396, 3397); Equus burchelli antiquorum; Zululandia, South Africa, GHE Hopkins coll.

Genus Cebidicola Bedford, 1936

extrarius Werneck, 1950. Cebidicola. (2746) Holotype 1 male (3421). Allotype 1 female (3422). Paratypes 2 males (3423, 3424); Tamandua tetradactyla; Santa Cruz, Amazonas, Brazil; LR Guimarães coll., 08-XI-1936.

Genus Damalinia Mjöberg, 1910

baxi Hopkins, 1947. Damalinia. (2570) Paratypes 4 males and 4 females (3157); Damaliscus korrigum jimela; Ukerewe Peninsula, Tanganyika (=Tanzania); X-1944.

forficula siamensis Werneck, 1950. Damalinia. (1018) Paratypes 1 male (3180) and 1 female (3179);Muntiacus muntjak curvostylis; Sian; 1939.

hendrickxi Hopkins, 1947. Damalinia. (2568, 2569) Paratypes 1 male (3310) and 1 female (3311);Cephalophus (Cephalophus) nigrifrons kivuensis; Kivu, Belgian Congo and Kigezi, Uganda; III-1945.

traguli Werneck, 1950. Damalinia. (1812) Holotype 1 male (3412). Allotype 1 female (3411). Paratypes 1 male (3412) and 2 females (3411); Tragulus borneanus; Kendawagan, Borneo.

Genus Dasyonyx Bedford, 1932

(Dasyonyx) hopkinsi Werneck, 1941. Dasyonyx. (1266) Paratypes 3 males (2546-2548) and 3 females (2543-2545); Dendrohyrax dorsalis marmota; Namiryango, Kampala, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 02-X-1939.

(Dasyonyx) validus ugandensis Werneck, 1941. Dasyonyx. (1245) Paratypes 2 males, 5 females and 1 nymph (2533); Heterohyrax brucei brucei; Umi Rocks, East Madi, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 31-VIII-1936.

Genus Eurytrichodectes Stobbe, 1913

machadoi Werneck, 1958. Eurytrichodectes. (3948) Paratypes 1 male (4025) and 2 females (4023, 4024);Den-drohyrax (Heterohyrax) brucei bocagei; Marco de Cana-vezes, Benguela, Angola; AB Machado coll., 28-III-1956.

Genus Eutrichophilus Mjöberg, 1910

comitans Werneck, 1950. Eutrichophilus. (2757) Paratypes 1 male (3444) and 1 female (3445); Coendou pruinosus; Merida, Venezuela.

exiguus Werneck, 1950. Eutrichophilus. (2757) Paratypes 1 male (3443) and 1 female (3442); Coendou (Sphiggurus) melanurus; Kartabo, Guyana; 5-III-1924.

guyanensis Werneck, 1950. Eutrichophilus. (2751) Paratypes 3 males (3435-3437), 3 females (3432-3434) and fragments of male and female (3438-3441); Coendou (Sphiggurus) melanurus; Kartabo, Guyana; 5-III-1924.

moojeni Werneck, 1945. Eutrichophilus. (1643) Holotype 1 male (2870). Allotype 1 female (2871). Paratypes 6 males (2880-2885), 8 females (2872-2879) and fragments of male and female (2886-2888);Chaetomys subspinosus; Santa Tereza, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Genus Felicola Ewing, 1929

bedfordi Hopkins, 1942. Felicola. (1571) Paratype 1 female (2774); Bdeogale crassicauda omnivora; Sokoke Forest, Kenya; 23-VI-1932.

bedfordi Hopkins, 1942. Felicola. (1636) Neoparatypes 1 male and 1 female (2861); Bdeogale crassicauda crassicauda; Ncheu, Nyasaland; 04-X-1939.

braziliensis Emerson & Price, 1983. Felicola. (842) Holotype 1 male (1729). Allotype 1 female (1728); Felispajerus; Mato Grosso, Brazil.

felis Werneck, 1934. Trichodectes. (585) Holotype 1 female (1067). Allotype 1 male (1073). Paratypes 3 males (1074, 1075) and 5 females (1069-1072); Felis chibigouazou; River Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil; L Travassos coll., 02-VII-1922. Synonym of Felicola felis Werneck, 1934.

juccii Conci, 1942. Felicola. (2762) Holotype 1 male (3471). Paratype 1 female (3298); Paguma larvata grayi; Karin, Birmania; 27-VIII-1888.

macrurus Werneck, 1948. Felicola. (1806) Holotype 1 male (3036). Allotype 1 female (3035). Paratypes 3 males (3036) and 1 female (3035); Mungos paludinosus rubescens;Kilimandjaro, Tanzania; 1943.

minimus Werneck, 1948. Felicola. (1495) Paratypes 1 male (2713) and 1 female (2712); Atilax paludinosus robustus; Kampala, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 12-IX-1941.

neofelis Emerson & Price, 1983. Felicola. (116) Holotype 1 male (444). Allotype 1 female (443); Felis geoffroyi; Russas, Ceará, Brazil; 1936.

pygidialis Werneck, 1948. Felicola. (1423) Paratypes 3 males (2709-2711) and 3 females (2706-2708);Atilax paludinosus robustus; Kampala, Uganda; 12-IX-1941.

robertsi Hopkins, 1944. Felicola. (1638) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (2862); Rhychogale melleri langi; Swaziland, South Africa; 17-VI-1937.

rohani Werneck, 1956. Felicola. (3806) Holotype 1 male (3965). Allotype 1 female (3966). Paratype 1 female (3967); Herpestis griseus; Rose Hill, Mauricio Islands; FL Werneck coll., I-1954.

similis Emerson & Price, 1983. Felicola. (832) Paratypes 2 males (1659, 1660) and 3 females (1656-1658);Felis jaguarundi; Palma, Goiás, Brazil.

Genus Geomydoecus Ewing, 1929

chapini minor Werneck, 1950. Geomydoecus. (2749) Paratypes 2 males (3430, 3431) and 1 female (3429); Thomomys tularosae; Alamogordo, New Mexico, U. S. A.

copei Werneck, 1945. Geomydoecus. (739) Holotype 1 male (2927). Allotype 1 female (1768). Paratype 1 male (1769); Geomys mexicanus; Misantla, Mexico; II-1912.

truncatus Werneck, 1950. Geomydoecus. (2748) Paratypes 2 males (3427, 3428); Geomys personatus; Father Island, Texas, U. S. A.

Genus Lutridia Kéler, 1938

lutrae Werneck, 1937. Trichodectes. (952) Holotype 1 female (1964). Allotype 1 male (1965). Paratypes 6 males (1972-1977) and 6 females (1966-1971); Lutra paranensis; Belém, Pará, Brazil. Synonym of Lutridia lutrae Werneck, 1937.

Genus Neofelicola Werneck, 1948

aspidorhyncus Werneck, 1948. Neofelicola. (1836) Holotype 1 male (3122). Allotype 1 female (3121);Prionodon linsang; Sungei Maudam, River Boewatan, East Sumatra; Ferris coll.

bengalensis Werneck, 1948. Neofelicola. (1905) Holotype 1 female (3123). Paratypes 2 females (3123);Paradoxurus hermaphrodytus; Pulo Terutan, Malaca, Sian; Ferris coll., 1943.

sumatrensis Werneck, 1948. Neofelicola. (1836) Holotype 1 female (3120); Prionodon linsang; Sungei Maudam, River Boewatan, East Sumatra; Ferris coll.

Genus Neotrichodectes Ewing, 1929

arizonae Werneck, 1948. Neotrichodectes. (1878) Paratypes 2 males (3233) and 2 females (3232);Conepatus mesoleucus; Santa Catalina, Arizona, U. S. A.; R Flock coll., 23-X-1938.

chilensis Werneck, 1948. Trichodectes. (878) Holotype 1 male (1832). Allotype 1 female (1794). Paratypes 12 males (1824-1831) and 27 females (1795-1820); Conepatus chinga; Cayutue, Llanquihue, Chile; 26-XII-1935. Synonym of Neotrichodectes chilensis Werneck, 1948.

wolffhugeli Werneck, 1936. Trichodectes. (878) Holotype 1 male (1834). Paratype 1 male (1836);Conepatus chinga; Cayutue, Llanquihue, Chile; K Wolffhügel coll., 28-III-1927. Synonym ofNeotrichodectes wolffhugeli Werneck, 1936.

Genus Parafelicola Werneck, 1948

lenicornis Werneck, 1948. Parafelicola. (2562) Paratype 1 female (3112); Genetta sp.; Rutschuru, Belgian Congo; FL Hendrickx coll., V-1942.

wernecki Hopkins, 1941. Felicola. (1586) Paratype 1 female (2791); Genetta tigrina stuhlmanni; Near Butiaba, Bungoro, Uganda; 13-IX-1933. Synonym of Parafelicola wernecki Hopkins, 1941.

Genus Procavicola Bedford, 1932

(Acondylocephalus) scutifer Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (1228) Paratype 1 female (2528); Dendrohyrax dorsalis marmota; Namiryango, Kampala, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 02-X-1939.

(Condylocephalus) bedfordi bedfordi Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (687) Holotype 1 female (1189). Allotype 1 male (1190). Paratypes 2 males (1191, 1192); Dendrohyrax arboreus; Port Alfred, Cape Province, South Africa; 1933.

(Condylocephalus) bedfordi dissimilis Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (1185) Paratypes 4 males (2479-2482) and 4 females (2475-2478); Dendrohyrax adolfi-friederici; Mount Mufumbiro, Lake Kivu, Belgian Congo.

(Condylocephalus) hopkinsi Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (1194) Paratypes 4 males (2589-2592) and 2 females (2491, 2492); Dendrohyrax adolfi-friederici; Mount Mufumbiro, Lake Kivu, Belgian Congo; RC van Somerem, VI-1939.

(Meganarionoides) africanus Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (546, 1056) Paratypes 1 male (2406) and 2 females (2404, 2405); Procavia emini; Upper Lukenya, South Central Congo; 15-XII-1909.

(Procavicola) brucei Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (1206) Paratypes 2 males (2513, 2514) and 2 females (2511-2512); Procavia brucei brucei; Umi Rocks, East Madi, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 31-VII-1936.

(Procavicola) eichleri Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (686) Holotype 1 male (2319). Allotype 1 female (2318);Dendrohyrax arboreus; Port Alfred, Cape Province, South Africa; 1933.

(Procavicola) thorntoni Hopkins, 1942. Procavicola. (1582) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (2773);Procavia johnstoni matschiei; Mwansa, Tanganyika (=Tanzania); D Thornton coll., III-1942.

(Procavicola) ugandensis Werneck, 1941. Procavicola. (1212) Paratypes 2 males (2517, 2518) and 2 females (2515, 2516); Dendrohyrax dorsalis marmota; Namiryango, Kampala, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 02-X-1939.

Genus Procaviphilus Bedford, 1932

dubius Werneck, 1941. Procaviphilus. (1296) Paratypes 2 males (2598, 2599); Dendrohyrax adolfi-friederici; Mount Mufumbiro, Lake Kivu, Belgian Congo.

ferrisi hindei Werneck, 1946. Procaviphilus. (1688) Paratypes 1 male (3013) and 2 females (3011, 3012);Heterohyrax brucei hindei; Mutha Hill, Ukaban, Kenya; GHE Hopkins coll., IX-1938.

granulatus Ferris, 1930. Trichodectes. (1295) Paratypes 2 males (2596, 2597); Dendrohyrax adolfi-friederici; Mount Mufumbiro, Lake Kivu, Belgian Congo; GHE Hopkins coll. Synonym of Procaviphilus granulatus Ferris, 1930.

harrisi Werneck, 1946. Procaviphilus. (1692) Paratypes 2 males (3016, 3017) and 2 females (3014, 3015);Dendrohyrax validus schusteri; Mount Ulguru, Tanganyika (=Tanzania); WV Harris coll., VIII-1941.

Genus Stachiella Kéler, 1938

retusa martis Werneck, 1948. Stachiella. (1856) Holotype 1 female (3304). Allotype 1 male (3305); Martessp.; Mount Lyell, Yosemite Neat Park, California, U. S. A.; Ferris coll., 1915.

retusa salfii Conci, 1940. Stachiella. (2373) Holotype 1 female (3472); Martes martes; Trentino, Italia; Conci coll.

Genus Suricatoecus Bedford, 1932

decipiens Hopkins, 1941. Felicola. (1444) Paratype 1 female (2772); Mungos mungo macrurus; Kampala, Uganda; 15-XI-1933. Synonym of Suricatoecus decipiens Hopkins, 1941.

fahrenholzi Werneck, 1948. Suricatoecus. (2587) Holotype 1 male (3167). Allotype 1 female (3168). Paratypes 6 males ( 3171-3176) and 2 females (3169, 3170); Cerdocyon azarae; Puerto General Diaz, Chaco, Paraguay; Missão Científica Brasileira coll., III-1944.

guinlei Werneck, 1948. Suricatoecus. (1851) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (3349); Otocyon virgatus; Naiwasha, Kenya; Ferris coll.

helogaloidis Werneck, 1948. Suricatoecus. (1838) Paratypes 2 males (3095, 3096) and 3 females (3092-3094); Helogale atksoni; Haullich, Africa; Ferris coll., 28-XII-1945.

laticeps Werneck, 1942. Trichodectes. (578) Paratypes 1 male (2412) and 1 female (2411); Atilax paludinosus; Kilassa, Tanganyika (=Tanzania); 1931. Synonym of Suricatoecus laticeps Werneck, 1942.

paralaticeps Werneck , 1948. Suricatoecus. (1496) Paratype 1 female (2715); Atilax paludinosus robustus; Kampala, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 12-IX-1941.

Genus Trichodectes Nitzsch, 1818

emersoni Hopkins, 1960. Trichodectes. (3999) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (4059); Helictis orientalis; Tanompak, Kinalalu, Borneo; 20-VIII-1953.

fallax Werneck, 1948. Trichodectes. (803) Holotype 1 male (1512). Allotype 1 female (1510). Paratype 1 female (1511); Procyon cancrivorus; Guariba, São Paulo, Brazil; 24-VI-1934.

ferrisi Werneck, 1944. Trichodectes. (1916) Paratypes 2 males (2829, 2830) and 3 females (2829, 2830);Tremarctos ornatus majori; Rubio, Venezuela; Ferris coll.

galictidis Werneck, 1934. Trichodectes. (30) Holotype 1 female (509). Allotype 1 male (514). Paratypes 4 females (510-513) and 9 nymphs (515); Galictis vittata; Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

malaysianus Werneck, 1948. Trichodectes. (2440) Paratypes 5 males (3138-3142) and 5 females (3133-3137); Cynogale bennetti; River Siak, East Sumatra; WL Abbott coll., 10-XII-1906.

pinguis euarctidos Hopkins, 1954. Trichodectes. (4000) Paratypes 1 male and 1 female (4060); Euarctos americanus cinnamomus; Gray Creek, Kootmays, British Columbia; TK Moilliet coll., 03-VI-1936.

potus Werneck, 1934. Trichodectes. (514) Holotype 1 female (1011). Allotype 1 male (1018). Paratypes 5 males (1013-1017) and 5 females (1007-1010, 1012); Potus flavus; Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; R Avellar coll., X-1933.

Genus Tricholipeurus Bedford, 1929

albimarginatus Werneck, 1936. Trichodectes. (802) Holotype 1 female (1674). Allotype 1 male (1676). Paratypes 2 males (1677, 1678) and 4 females (1671-1673, 1675); Mazama americana; River Aripuanã, Amazonas, Brazil; C Rondon coll. Synonym of Tricholipeurus albimarginatus Werneck, 1936.

annectens Hopkins, 1943. Damalinia. (1583) Paratypes 2 males (2778, 2779), 3 females (2775-2777) and 1 genitalia of male (2780); Tragelaphus scriptus bor; Lango, Uganda; III-1942. Synonym of Tricholipeurus annectens Hopkins, 1943.

balanicus balanicus Werneck, 1938. Trichodectes. (253) Holotype 1 male (2175). Allotype 1 female (2172). Paratypes 2 males (2176, 2177) and 2 females (2173, 2174); Antilope cervicapra; Londres, England; Teresa Clay coll., 1937. Synonym of Tricholipeurus balanicus Werneck, 1938.

balanicus ourebiae Hopkins, 1943. Damalinia. (2712, 2714) Paratypes 4 males (3370, 3374-3376) and 5 females (3370, 3371-3373); Ourebia ourebi ugandae; Lango, Uganda and Mongalla, Sudan; III-1942 and XI-1940. Synonym of Tricholipeurus ourebiae Hopkins, 1943.

clayae Werneck, 1938. Trichodectes. (259) Holotype 1 male (2193). Allotype 1 female (2190). Paratypes 3 males (2194-2196) and 2 females (2191, 2192); Neotragus pygmaeus; Londres, England; Teresa Clay coll., IV-1937. Synonym of Tricholipeurus clayae Werneck, 1938.

dorcelaphi Werneck, 1936. Trichodectes. (809) Holotype 1 female (1694). Allotype 1 male (1699). Paratypes 3 males (1696-1698) and 3 females (1692, 1693, 1695); Dorcelaphus besoarticus; Chapada, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Synonym of Tricholipeurus dorcelaphi Werneck, 1936.

indicus Werneck, 1950. Tricholipeurus. (2760) Paratypes 2 males (3448, 3451) and 3 females (3448-3450); Muntiacus muntjak; Mphal, Manipur, India; CD Radford coll., 04-II-1946.

pakenhami Werneck, 1947. Tricholipeurus. (2571) Paratypes 1 male (3188) and 1 female (3187);Cephalophus adersi; Zanzibar Islands; X-1943.

parkeri Hopkins, 1941. Tricholipeurus. (1418) Paratypes 3 males and 2 females (2689); Gazella (Eudorcas) thomsoni nasalis; Naivasha, Kenya; 22-I-1941.

spinifer Hopkins, 1943. Damalinia. (1580) Paratypes 2 males (2768, 2769), 3 females (2765-2767) and spermatheca (3378); Gazella (Nanger) brighti; Moroto, Karamoja, Uganda; 16-X-1941. Synonym ofTricholipeurus spinifer Hopkins, 1943.

trabeculae ugandae Werneck, 1950. Tricholipeurus. (1424) Holotype 1 male (3366). Allotype 1 female (3362). Paratypes 2 males (3367, 3368) and 6 females (3363-3365); Redunca redunca; Nakitoma, Buruli, Uganda; 12-VI-1941.

victoriae Hopkins, 1943. Damalinia. (2596) Paratypes 4 males (3192-3194) and 3 females (3189-3191);Rhyncho-tragus guentheri smithi; Nyanga, Jie County, Karamoja, Uganda; GHE Hopkins coll., 09-IX-1941. Synonym of Tricholipeurus victoriae Hopkins, 1943.

 

Family Trimenoponidae

Genus Cummingsia Ferris, 1922

intermedia Werneck, 1937. Cummingsia. (925) Holotype 1 male (2093). Allotype 1 female (2094). Paratypes 2 females (2095, 2096); Marmosa incana paulensis; Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Genus Philandesia Kellog & Nakayama, 1914

chinchillae Werneck, 1935. Trimenopon. (822) Holotype 1 female (1620). Allotype 1 male (1621). Paratypes 2 females (1623); Eriomys chinchilla; Abra Pampa, Jujuy, Argentina; S Mazza coll., 10-V-1935. Synonym of Philandesia chinchillae Werneck, 1935.

mazzai Werneck, 1933. Trimenopon. (480) Holotype 1 male (939). Allotype 1 female (935). Paratypes 3 males (936-938) and 2 nymphs (940); Eriomys chinchilla; Cordilheira dos Andes, Jujuy, Argentina; S Mazza coll. Synonym of Philandesia mazzai Werneck, 1933.

 

HOST SYNONYMY

Atilax paludinosus rubescens = Atilax paludinosus

Bdeogale crassicaudata omnivora = Bdeogale crassicaudata

Capromys prehensilis = Mysateles prehensilis

Cephalophus (Cephalophus) nigrifons kivuensis = Cephalophus nigrifons

Cercomys cunicularis fosteri = Thrichomys apereoides

Cercomys cunicularis inermis = Thrichomys apereoides

Cercomys laurentis = Thrichomys apereoides

Cerdocyon azarae = Cerdocyon thous

Coelogenys paca = Agouti paca

Coendou pruinosus = Sphiggurus vestitus

Coendou (Sphiggurus) melanurus = Sphiggurus insidiosus

Ctenomys luteolus = Ctenomys opimus

Damaliscus korrigum = Damaliscus lunatus

Dasyprocta acouchy = Myoprocta acouchy

Dendrohyrax adolfi-friederici = Dendrohyrax arboreus

Dendrohyrax dorsalis marmota = Dendrohyrax dorsalis

Dendrohyrax (Heterohyrax) brucei bocagei = Heterohyrax brucei

Dendrohyrax validus schusteri = Dendrohyrax validus

Dorcephalus besoarticus = Ozotoceros bezoarticus

Echimys cayennensis = Proechimys cayennensis

Eriomys chinchilla = Chinchilla lanígera

Equus burchelli antiquorum = Equus burchelli

Euarctos americanus cinnamomus = Ursus americanus

Euryzygomatomys spinosus catellus = Euryzygomatomys spinosus

Felis chibigouazou = Leopardus pardalis

Felis geoffroyi = Oncifelis geoffroyi

Felis jaguarundi = Herpailurus yaguarondi

Felis pajerus = Oncifelis colocolo

Gazella (Eudorcas) thomsoni nasalis = Gazella thomsonii

Gazella (Nanger) brighti = Gazella granti

Genetta tigrina stuhlmanni = Genetta tigrina

Hapale santaremensis = Callithrix humeralisantaremensis

Helictis orientalis = Melogale orientalis

Helogale atksoni = Helogale parvula

Herpestis griséus = Herpestes edwardsii

Heterohyrax brucei brucei = Heterohyrax brucei

Heterohyrax brucei hindei = Heterohyrax brucei

Isothrix bistriatus = Isothrix bistriata

Isothrix pictus = Isothrix bistriata

Loncheres armatus = Echimys brasiliensis

Loncheres grandis = Echimys grandis

Lutra paranensis = Pteronura brasiliensis

Macropus major = Macropus giganteus

Marmosa incana paulensis = Marmosops incanus

Mungos mungo macrurus = Mungos mungo

Mungos paludinosus rubescens = Atilax paludinosus

Muntiacus muntjak curvostylis = Muntiacus muntjak

Nelomys sp.= Echimys sp

Neotragus pygmaeus = Neotragus pygmeus

Oreotragus oreotragus aureus = Oreotragus oreotragus

Osphranter robustus = Macropus robustus

Otocyon virgatus = Otocyon megalotis

Ourebia ourebi ugandae = Ourebia ourebi

Potus flavus = Potos flavus

Procavia brucei brucei = Heterohyrax brucei

Procavia emini = Dendrohyrax dorsalis

Proechimys albispinus albispinus = Proechimys albispinus

Rhyncogale malleri langi = Rhyncogale melleri

Rhynchotragus guentheri smithi = Madoqua guentheri

Sigmodon hispidus chiriquensis = Sigmodon hispidus

Thomomys tularosae = Thomomys bottae

Tragelaphus scriptus bor = Tragelaphus scriptus

Tragulus borneanus = Tragulus napu

Tremarctos ornatus majori = Tremarctos ornatus

 

DISCUSSION

Currently, the Order Mallophaga is composed of approximately 3,000 species grouped in 10 families. Of this total, 369 (12.3%) are represented in the Werneck Collection. From all of the described species, 467 are ectoparasites found on 356 different species of mammals, depending basically in which methodology is applied during the insect's collection (Emerson & Price 1981).

In addition to the type species presented in the list of species, there are still three other paratypes from which the year of the species' description could not be found: Goniodes spinicornis dubiculus Eichler (register 3266) with 1 male (slide 3814), and 1 female (slide 3813); Neo-docophorus asionis Eichler (register 2935) with 1 female (slide 3628), and Bovicola nippon Nakagawa(register 3895) with 1 female (slide 4022).

According to Emerson and Price (1981) the mammal orders can be found infested in the following percentages: Proboscidea (100%), Hyracoidea (81.8%), Carnivora (42.9%), Artiodactyla (38.5%), Perissodactyla (37.5%), Marsupialia (16.9%), Edentata (6.3%), Primates (5.9%) and Rodentia (5.7%).

The contribution of Werneck for the improvement of our knowledge on Mallophaga is highly important since he described 199 species registered all over the world. This represents 42.6% of all species that infest mammals.

In Brazil, of 74 species found of Mallophaga that infest mammals (Werneck 1948 and 1950, Emerson & Price 1983, Linardi et al. 1991), 40 were described by Werneck (54.1%). The majority of the species are included in the genera Gliricola and Gyropus. In South American countries, from other 39 species, 15 (38.5%) were also described by that author. Because of the proximity of certain biomes, some of the species reported for other South American countries probably may be also found in Brazil. It is important to stress that in Venezuela, with a geographic area approximately nine times smaller than Brazil, Emerson and Price (1975) were able to record 56 species of Mallophaga infesting mammals.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

To Dr Fernando A Monteiro for the critical reading. To Ana Paula Rufino Amaro for the bibliographic survey and the maintenance of Werneck Collection material.

 

REFERENCES

Boxshall G, Montú M 1997. Copepods parasitic on Brazilian coastal fishes: a handbook. Nauplius 5: 1-225.

Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol 83: 575-583.

Cressey R 1981. Parasitic copepods from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, I: Holobomolochusand NeobomolochusSmithson Contrib Zool 339: 1-20.

Cressey R 1984. A new genus of bomolochid copepod from Eastern Pacific haemulid fishes. Bull Mar Sci 35: 182-186.

Cressey R, Cressey HB 1980. Parasitic copepods of mackerel and tuna-like fishes (Scombridae) of the world. Smithson Contrib Zool 311: 1-186.

Luque JL, Bruno M 1990. Two new species of Acantholochus Cressey, 1984 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) parasitic on Peruvian marine fishes. J Nat Hist 24: 241-249.

Rivas LR 1986. Systematic review of the perciform fishes of the genus CentropomusCopeia 3: 579-611.

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