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MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ, RIO DE JANEIRO, 94(6) Nov/Dez 1999
PAGES: 757-762 DOI: Full paper
Description of Lutzomyia bianchigalatiae n. sp. a Sand Fly Within the Subgenus Pintomyia Costa Lima 1932 (Diptera; Psychodidae)

José Dilermando Andrade Filho +, Gustavo Marins Aguiar*, Edelberto Santos Dias, Alda Lima Falcão

Laboratório de Leishmanioses, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Av. Augusto de Lima 1715, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
*Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Abstract

A new sand fly species is described based on males collected in Bananal, municipality of Mariana and the female from Sabará city, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Taxonomic remarks, geographic distribution and the description of new species are presented. The name Lutzomyia (Pintomyia) bianchigalatiae is in honour of Dr Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, friend and researcher at the Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo.

key words:

Reviewing the accumulated material on the subgenus Pintomyia Costa Lima, 1932 pertaining to the sand fly collection at the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, we observed that some specimens, remained unclassified. Examining this material an undescribed species was uncovered.

The subgenus Pintomyia shows the fifth segment of the long palps, longer than the 3rd + 4th and a longitudinal row of spines in the hind femur. The females present 4 horizontal teeth in the cibarium and 2 or 3 rows of vertical teeth; the body of the espermatheca is capsular and the individual duct is partially or totally sclerotized. The male form shows 4 spines, and a subterminal seta. The paramere is simple and unarmed (Martins et al. 1978, Young & Duncan 1994).

According to with Young and Duncan (1994) five species of sand flies are considered valid for this subgenus: Lutzomyia fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lutzomyia pessoai (Coutinho & Barretto 1940), Lutzomyia damascenoi (Mangabeira 1941),Lutzomyia gibsoni (Pifano & Ortiz 1972) and Lutzomyia christenseni Young & Duncan 1994. Recently Lutzomyia mamedei Oliveira, Afonso, Dias & Brazil was transferred to this subgenus (Andrade Filho et al. 1999 in press) andLutzomyia kuscheli Le Pont, Martinez, Torres & Dujardim 1998 was also decribed (Le Pont et al. 1998).

The present description is based on the characters proposed by the Cipa Group (1991).

Male: holotype (measurements are in millimeters). Length 2.4. General coloration is dark brown, including the pleura.

Head (Table IFig. 1): ratio head/clypeus 2.26:1. Palpal formula 1.4.2.3.5, with the 5th palpomere longer than the 3rd + 4th. Antennae with proximal prolongation of ascoids short, distal prolongation reaching the middle of flagellomere. Papillae are present in the segments AIII, AIV, AV, AXIV - AXVI; length of the first flagellomeres: AIII - 0.255, AIV - 0.114, AV - 0.110. The ratio AXVI/AXV 0.79:1, and AIII/ LE 1.04:1.

Thorax (Table II): coloration of notum and pleura is dark brown, coxae paler than notum. Setae absent from metepimere and metepisterne. Fore and middle femur of equal size, hind femur with longitudinal row of 11 spines (Fig. 2-O).

Abdomen (Table IIIFig. 3): coxite 0.245 long, maximum width 0.076, without tuft of setae. Style 0.117 long with 4 strong spine, placed at different levels, one being apical, one external upper, one external lower and one internal basal. Subterminal seta present. Paramere 0.186 with the basal region more dilated, middle inferior region of the structure having a slight internal curvature ending with the extremity more slender. Lateral lobe 0.235 long, maximum width 0.028, a little thinner than the coxite. Aedeagus simple with a sharp extremity. Genital pump 0.173 long. Genital filaments pump and lightly grooved throughout its extension, measuring 0.697 with the filaments being 4.03 X the length of the pump. The point of the genital filament is simple.

Female: allotype. Length 2450. General color as in the male.

Head (Table IFig. 1): the ratio head/clypeus 2.29:1. Maxillae with a row of 5 external longitudinal teeth. Palpal formula 1.4.2.3.5, with 5th palpomere longer than 3rd + 4th. The Newstead's spines are visible in the second and third palpal segment. Antennae with proximal prolongation of ascoids short and the distal extension, reaching to the apex of the struture. Papilla as in the male. Length of the first flagellomeres: AIII - 0.235, AIV - 0.107, AV - 0.110. The ratio AXVI/AV 1.30:1. Cibarium with 4 equidistant horizontal teeth. Vertical teeth distributed over two rows, lateral teeth absent. Cibarium arch complete. Pigment patch poorly defined.

Thorax (Table II): as in the male. Hind femur with longitudinal row of 8 spines.

Abdomen (Table IIIFig. 3): simple cercus. Spermathecae 0.024 in length by 0.028 in width, measured in the distal extremity, the head of the espermathecae is slightly visible. Individual duct and common duct pratically the same size with lengths of 0.076 and 0.073, respectively. In two other females the common duct was larger than the individual duct. Individual duct weakly sclerotized in the middle of the structure until the apical region and lightly dilated in the basal region, gradually tapering. Common duct with homogeneous width.

Types: holotype male collected in the locality of Bananal, municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil with Shannon trap (A. Leôncio col.), on 17 April 1966, together with two paratype males. Alotype female collected in the locality of Alto do Cuiabá, municipality of Sabará, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Shannon trap in a forested area (J.E. Silva col.), on 17 February 1969.

Material type: holotype male deposited in the collection of sandflies at the Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, slide number 38830, together with two paratype males, slides numbers 38829 and 38830 A and one alotype female, slide number 42628.

The following material was also examined:

Brazil _ State of Minas Gerais: Belo Horizonte (Barreiro de Cima) - J. E. Silva col., 1G, 15 December 1958 (slide no. 8504); 1 G, 26 January 1959 (slide no. 9187); 1 G, 29 December 1959 (slide no. 13618); 1 G, 14 January 1960 (slide no. 13714); 2 GG, 24 November 1961 (slide no. 26381 and 26382); 1 E, 25 October 1965 (slide no. 35116); (Jardim Zoológico) - T. L. Godoy col., 1 E, 12 May 1959 (slide no. 10245); (Parque das Mangabeiras) - J. E. Silva col., 1 G, 22 February 1968 (slide no. 42451); 1 E, 11 March 1968 (slide no. 42564 E); Caeté - J. E. Silva col., 1 E, 02 May 1962 (slide no. 28146); Caratinga (Córrego. Barracão) - A. R. Falcão col., 1 E, 25 May 1975 (slide no. 50346); 1 E, 04 June 1975 (slide no 50346); Sabará (Alto do Cuiabá) - J. E. Silva col., 1 E, 16 June 1964 (slide no. 33347); State of Espírito Santo: Linhares (Soretama) - J. E. Silva col., 1 E, 15 May 1965 (slide no. 35563); State of Rio de Janeiro: Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos - Rodrigues col., 1 E, 12 July 1983 (slide no. 6960); Itaguaí - G. M. Aguiar col., 1 E, 01 April 1984 (slide no. 750); State of Paraná: Barrasópolis - J. E. Silva col., 1 G, 21 December 1967 (slide no. 40671)

Locality type: Bananal, municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Remarks

Taxonomic discussion: among the species comprising the subgenus Pintomyia the males of L. (P.) bianchigalatiae n. sp. differ from those L. (P.) pessoai and L. (P.) damascenoi in terms of the position of spines in the styles and by the absence of tufts of bristles on the coxite. L. (P.) bianchigalatiae n. sp. showed the same arrangement of spines styles ofL. (P.) fischeriL. (P.) kuscheli and L. (P.) christenseni, but differs from the latter with regard to the styles spines, which are more robust, the absence of bristles on the coxite and the appearance of the paramere. L. (P.) kuscheli can be differentiated by the absence of bristles on the coxite and paramere. L. (P.) fischeri is the species most similar to L. (P.) bianchigalatiae n. sp.. In the original description of L. (P.) fischeri, Pinto (1926) noted the presence of three bristles on the coxite. Coutinho and Barretto (1940) redescribed the species emphasising the presence of two to four bristles. In the material examined from various regions of Brazil we observed the presence of one to four bristles, however L. (P.) bianchigalatiae n. sp. differed from L. (P.) fischeri due to the absence of basistyle bristles.

The females can be distinguished from the other species by the espermathecae that are attached to its distal extremity, becoming wider resembling a rectangular shape.

The correlation between the sexes was established based on genital and extra-genitals characters, including the pattern of thorax color and the palpal formula. Both males and females were captured in the same area in the absence of any other unknown species.

Geographic distribution: L. (P.) bianchigalatiae was captured in most of the southeastern states of Brazil. In State of Minas Gerais it occurred in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Ouro Preto, Sabará and Caratinga, in addition to the locality type, Mariana. The species was also registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, Itaguaí, Paracambi, Parque Nacional da Bocaina, Angra dos Reis and Paraty), State of São Paulo (Ubatuba and Picinguaba - District of Ubatuba; Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar), State of Espírito Santo (municipality of Linhares), State of Paraná, (southern region in the municipalites of Barrasópolis, Morretes - Serra da Graciosa, Jussara - Fazenda Palmital, Cianorte and Foz do Iguaçu - Parque Nacional do Iguaçu).

Its interesting to emphasize that the species is highly anthropophilic avidly feeding on man even in the presence of other baits. Seventy four percent of 508 sandflies collected by one of us (GMA) were captured using human bait, the remaining 26% were distributed among light trap of Falcão (1981) and Shannon trap (1939), resting on inner and outer domestic walls and a small percentage in domestic pens.

 

REFERENCES

Andrade Filho JD, Falcão AL, Brazil RP 1999. Nota sobre Lutzomyia mamedei Oliveira, Afonso, Dias & Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae). An Soc Entomol Brasil (in press).

Cipa Group Bermudes H, Dedet JP, Falcão AL, Feliciangeli D, Ferro C, Galati EAB, Gomes EL, Herrero MV, Hervas D, Lebbe J, Morales A, Oguzuku E, Perez E, Rangel EF, Sherlock IA, Torres M, Vignes R, Wolff M 1991. Proposition of a standart description for phlebotomine sand flies. Parassitologia 33 (Suppl.): 127-135.

Coutinho JO, Barreto MP 1940. Contribuição para o conhecimento dos flebótomos de São Paulo: Phlebotomus fischeri PINTO, 1926 e Phlebotomus pessoai N.SP. Dipt., Psychodidae. Rev Biol Hyg 2: 89-103.

Falcão AR 1981. Um novo modelo de armadilha luminosa de sucção para pequenos insetos. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 76: 303-305.

Le Pont F, Martinez EM, Torres M, Dujardin JP 1998. Description de 5 nouveles spéces de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) de Région Subandine. Bull Soc Entomol France 103: 159-173

Martins AV, Williams P, Falcão AL 1978. American Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Acad Bras Ciências, Rio de Janeiro 195 pp.

Pinto C 1926. Phlebotomus neivai e Phl. fischeri n. sp.- Sobre o aparelho espicular dos phlebotomos e seu valor específico. Reimpresso da Sciencia Medica-Anno IV - N. 6

Shannon RC 1939. Methods for collecting and feeding mosquitoes in jungle yellow fever studies. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 19: 131-148.

Young DG, Duncan MA 1994. Guide to the identification and geographic distribuition of Lutzomyia sandflies in the Mexico, the west indies, Central and the South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Mem Amer Ent Inst 54: 881.