PAGES: 344-346 DOI: S0074-02762008000400005 Full paper
Description of Micropygomyia brandaoi sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a fossil phlebotomine from the Dominican Republic

José Dilermando Andrade FilhoI, +; Eunice A Bianchi GalatiII; Alda Lima FalcãoI; Reginaldo Peçanha BrazilIII

ILaboratório de Leishmanioses, Instituto René Rachou-Fiocruz, Av. Augusto de Lima 1715, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
IIDepartamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
Laboratório de Bioquímica, Fisiologia e Imunologia de Insetos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil


The description of Micropygomyia brandaoi, a new species of fossil phlebotomine sand fly, is based on one male specimen obtained from Dominican amber of the Miocene period (20 million years). In this new species, the fifth palpal segment is long, the coxite lacks a setal tuft and the style shows four well-developed spines. This set of characters allowed us to place the new species in the genus Micropygomyia Barretto.

Fossil phlebotomines
have been discovered in amber from Mexico and the Dominican Republic (Quate
1963, Brazil & Andrade Filho 2002, Andrade Filho & Brazil 2004, Peñalver
& Grimaldi 2005, Andrade Filho et al. 2006a, b, 2007). Amber from the Dominican
Republic has an estimated age of about 20 million years, and thus dates from
the Miocene period (Iturralde-Vicente &amp; MacPhee 1966).</font></p>
<p><font>We examined 32
amber inclusions from Dominican Republic containing 55 phlebotomine sandflies
specimens; all specimens were assumed to belong to a single undescribed species.
A rectangular piece of amber, measuring 1.9 cm x 1 cm was selected as holotype.
We are herein describing a new species based only in the holotype. The measures
are given in micrometers; measures were made using an Olympus CH2 microscope
fitted with an ocular micrometer. Drawings were made using a camera lucida.
The classification scheme used is that proposed by Galati (1995).</font></p>
brandaoi</i> sp. n. (<a href="#fig1">Figs 1-3</a>)</font></p>
<p><a name="fig1"></a></p>
<p align="center"><img src="/images/revistas/2008/103_4/img/238f1.jpg" data-lightbox="transitionIn:fade;transitionOut:fade;"></p>
<p><a name="fgi2"></a></p>
<p align="center"><img src="/images/revistas/2008/103_4/img/238f2.jpg" data-lightbox="transitionIn:fade;transitionOut:fade;"></p>
<p><font><i>Male holotype</i>
- Sand fly relatively small, measurement ca 1,456; its entire length could not
be measured, and its general color could not be defined with precision. Paired
appendages complete.</font></p>
<p><font>Head: laid on its
side, thus obstructing the width measurement. Mouthparts not distinguishable,
thus palpo-meres 1st and 2nd could not be clearly separated; length of both
palpomeres = 135. Lengths of other palpomeres as follows: 3rd = 119; 4th = 72;
5th = 262. Palpal formula, the length of palpomere 5th being longer
than the sum of the length of palpomeres 3rd and 4th. Newstead's spines visible
on 3rd palpomere, implanted nearly the middle. Antennae complete with ascoids
clearly visible, these being simple and short, not reaching the apex of the
subsequent flagellomere. Papilla present on AIII, AIV, AXIII-AXVI. Measurements
of flagellomeres: AIII = 225; AIV = 88; AV = 88. AXV/AXVI ratio &gt; 1.0. AIII/AIV
ratio = 2,56:1 and AIII/palpomere 5 ration = 0,86:1.</font></p>
<p><font>Thorax: thoracic
bristles not visible, except on the notum. Wings: 568 wide. Principal wing indices:
</font><font size="2">&#945;</font><font>(R2) - 316; </font><font size="2">&#946;</font><font>(R2 + R3)
- 237; </font><font size="2">&#947;</font><font> (R2+R3+R4) - 248; </font><font size="2">&#948;</font><font>
(part of R1 that extends beyond the junction of R2+R3) - 34. </font><font size="2">&#945;</font><font>/</font><font size="2">&#946;</font><font>
ratio = 1.33:1 and </font><font size="2">&#945;</font><font>/</font><font size="2">&#948;</font><font>
ratio = 9.29:1. Legs without special characters. Lengths of anterior, median
and posterior femora 597, 597 and 642 respectively. Lengths of anterior, median
and posterior tibiae 783, 879 and 992 respectively. Anterior, median and posterior
tarsomeres 507, 541 and 597 respectively. Anterior femur/median femur ration
= 1:1 and anterior femur/anterior tibia ratio = 0.76:1.</font></p>
<p><font>Abdomen: genital
pump and genital filaments not visible. Aedeagus triangular; gonostyle 99 long,
with four spines arranged as follows: one apical, one external superior, one
external inferior implanted at same level as an internal spine on the middle
of the gonostyle. Pre-apical bristle absent. Coxite 130 long, without bristles.
Paramere 132 long, bearing a dorsal group of bristles. Lateral lobe 168 long
and 19 wide. Lateral lobe/coxite ratio = 1.29:1; coxite/paramere ratio = 0,98:1;
lateral lobe/paramere ratio = 1.27:1.</font></p>
<p><font><i>Type material</i>
- Holotype male and 54 paratypes males, Dominican Republic, North Santiago,
specimen in amber from the mid-Miocene period, deposited in the Phlebotomine
Sand Fly collection of the Instituto Ren&eacute; Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte,
MG, Brazil.</font></p>
- The name <i>Micropygomyia brandaoi</i> sp. n. is in honor of Sinval Pinto
Brand&atilde;o Filho, for his contribution to the knowledge on leishmaniasis
in Brazil.</font></p>
<p><font><b>TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION</b></font></p>
<p><font>The presence of
short ascoid, palpomere 5th longer than the others, small terminalia, four spines
on gonostyle and gonocoxite without bristles allow the inclusion of <i>Micropygomyia
brandaoi</i> sp. n. in the genus <i>Micropygomyia</i> Barretto. In this genus,
usually the 2th palpomere is smaller or equal to the 4th. However in the new
species the opposite was observed; the same has been described to occur with
some specimens belonging to the <i>Micropygomyia cayennensis</i> (Floch &amp;
Abonnenc) complex.</font></p>
<p><font>The terminalia
of <i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n. is very similar to that of the members of the <i>Micropygomyia
cayennensis</i> complex. According to Young and Duncan (1994), the anterior
femora in all subspecies of <i>M. cayennensis</i> is shorter than the anterior
tibiae. However in five specimens of <i>M. cayennensis cayennensis</i> (numbers
3759, 6178, 55882 and 55883) as well as in a <i>M. cayennensis hispaniolae</i>
(Fairchild &amp; Trapido) paratype examined by us, the anterior femur was always
longer than the anterior tibia, which ratio in <i>M. c. cayennensis</i> specimen
3759 and <i>M. c. hispaniolae</i> being 1.02:1. In <i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n.
this ratio is 0.75:1; the anterior femur thus being much shorter than the anterior
tibia. The a/b ratio in those two subspecies are 1.78:1 and 1.77:1 respectively,
while in this fossil species this ratio is 9.58:1. In <i>M. brandaoi</i> sp.
n. the lateral lobe is longer than both the paramere and the gonocoxite, the
lateral lobe/paramere and lateral lobe/basistyle ratios are 1.25:1 and 1.07:1,
respectively. In <i>M. c. cayennensis</i> these ratios are only 0.78:1 and 0.69:1
respectively, while in <i>M. c. hispaniolae</i> they are 0.69:1 and 0.85:1.
The gonostyle of <i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n. also differs from that of species
of the <i>M. cayennensis</i> complex. The external superior spine is implanted
at some distance from the apex of gonostyle in <i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n., while
in <i>M. cayennensis</i> complex this spine is very close the apex. Given all
these differences we concluded that the new species does not belong to the <i>M.
cayennensis</i> complex.</font></p>
<p><font>The arrangement
of the spines in the gonostyle is like that found in <i>Micropygomyia atroclavata</i>
(Knab) and <i>Micropygomyia venezuelensis</i> (Floch &amp; Abonnenc); however
these species have tuft of bristles in gonostyle, absent in the new fossil species
<i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n. This characteristic distinguishes <i>M. brandaoi</i>
sp. n. from those species belonging to subgenus <i>Coquillettimyia</i>. Thus,
we do not include the new fossil species in any subgenus of genus <i>Micropygomyia</i>.</font></p>
<p><font>The small terminalia,
especially with respect to length of lateral lobe, paramere and gonocoxite distinguish
<i>M. brandaoi</i> sp. n. from the other sand fly fossils species.</font></p>
<p><font>Andrade Filho JD,
Brazil RP, Falc&atilde;o AL, Galati EAB 2007. Description of <i>Pintomyia (Pifanomyia)
paleotrichia,</i> a Miocene period new species from the Dominican Republic (Diptera:
Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). <i>Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102</i>: 901-903.</font></p>
<p><font>Andrade Filho JD,
Falc&atilde;o AL, Brazil RP 2004. A new phlebotomine fossil species <i>Trichopygomyia
killickorum</i> sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae), found in the Dominican Republic
amber. <i>Parasite 11</i>: 71-73.</font></p>
<p><font>Andrade Filho JD,
Falc&atilde;o AL, Galati EAB, Brazil RP 2006a. <i>Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) paleotowsendi</i>,
a new sand fly from the Miocene amber of Dominican Republic (Diptera: Psychodidae:
Phlebotominae). <i>Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101</i> (Suppl. II): 57-58.</font></p>
<p><font>Andrade Filho JD,
Galati EAB, Falc&atilde;o AL 2006b. Description of <i>Pintomyia (Pifanomyia)
brazilorum</i> sp. nov. a new fossil species from the Dominican Republic (Diptera:
Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). <i>Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101</i>: 141-142.</font></p>
<p><font>Brazil RP, Andrade
Filho JD 2002. Description of <i>Pintomyia</i> (<i>Pifanomyia</i>) <i>falcaorum</i>
sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) a fossil sand fly from Dominican
amber. <i>Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97:</i> 501-503.</font></p>
<p><font>Galati EAB 1995.
Phylogenetic systematics of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) with emphasis
on American groups. <i>Bol Dir Malariol Saneam Amb 35</i> (Supl. 1): 133-142.</font></p>
MA, MacPhee RDE 1996. Age and Paleogeographical origin of Dominican amber. <i>Scien
273</i>: 1850-1852.</font></p>
E, Grimaldi D 2005. Assemblages of mammalian hair and blood-feeding midges (Insecta:
Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Miocene amber. <i>Trans R Soc Edin Earth
Sci 96</i>: 177-195.</font></p>
<p><font>Quate LW 1963.
Fossil Psychodidae in Mexican amber, part 2 Diptera: <i>Insect J Paleontol 37</i>:
<p><font>Young DG, Duncan
MA 1994. <i>Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of</i> Lutzomyia
<i>Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:
Psychodidae</i>). Mem Am Entomol Inst 54, Associated Publishers, 881 pp.

Received: 12 December 2007
Accepted: 24 June 2008
Financial support: Capes, Fiocruz

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