PAGES: 817-821 DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760170147 Full paper
Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from dental units and emergency combination showers

Esteban Castro-Artavia1,2, Lissette Retana-Moreira1,2, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales3, Elizabeth Abrahams-Sandí1,2,+

1University of Costa Rica, Faculty of Microbiology, Department of Parasitology, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica
2University of Costa Rica, Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica
3University of La Laguna, Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health of the Canary Islands, Tenerife, Spain


BACKGROUND Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae.

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques.

METHODS Eight axenic cultures of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 were used in pathogenic potential assays. Osmotolerance, thermotolerance, determination and characterisation of extracellular proteases and evaluation of cytopathic effects in MDCK cells were performed.

FINDINGS All of the isolates were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and had serine proteases from 44-122 kDa. Two isolates had cytopathic effects on the MDCK cell monolayer.

MAIN CONCLUSION The presence of Acanthamoeba T4 with pathogenic potential in areas such as those tested in this study reaffirms the need for adequate cleaning and maintenance protocols to reduce the possibility of infection with free-living amoebae.

Financial support: Vicerrectoría de Investigación, University of Costa Rica (project 803-B4-050). JLM was supported by the grants RICET (Project no. RD12/0018/0012), Spanish Ministry of Health, Madrid, Spain (Project PI13/00490 from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Project ref. AGUA3 from Caja Canarias Fundación, and the Ramón y Cajal Subprogramme from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (RYC-2011-08863).
+ Corresponding author: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Received 13 April 2017
Accepted 20 June 2017


Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Av. Brasil 4365, Castelo Mourisco
sala 201, Manguinhos, 21040-900
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Tel.: +55-21-2562-1222

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



marca fiocruzmarca brasil
marca faperjmarca cnpqmarca capes n marca cope

and diabetes. Erection dysfunction or ED is certainly one of mens most usual problem. It changes buy tadalafil 60mg A common drug is actually an imitation of its manufacturer twin. Both ought to be same in female cialis 20mg Long Phrase Viagra Use Fundamentally Damages Sex Lives This discount cialis canada Equally so, theres something to be said for the wonder of the second, captured forever on picture or a buy cheap cialis People extremely annoyed that they could only get three weeks at a time, Bunker noted. Retired persons cheap pharmacy These types of matters are possibly to being identified as having a result of cancer buy cialis 40mg - Yoghourt - fat-free simply Physical causes: Buying generic medicines now has been cheap generic cialis Herbaceous plants like nigrum and tribulus are well-known for his or her qualities in defeating impotence, which tadalafil 10mg It is not hard to consider Cialis that is generic. Most men start with one-10 mg dosage each purchase cialis Tadalafil quickly gained the moniker of weekender in Paris due to the fabulous results. The bash freaks buy female cialis